Masaharu Iwata
Masaharu Iwata (岩田匡治, Iwata Masaharu, a.k.a. REZON, born October 26, 1966 in Tokyo, Japan) is a Japanese video game music composer. This great friend of Hitoshi Sakimoto worked on many video games since 1987. His most well-known projects are Ogre Battle, Tactics Ogre, Treasure Hunter G, Final Fantasy Tactics, Baroque, Stella Deus: The Gate of Eternity, and, most recently, Final Fantasy XII. He is now part of Basiscape, a video game music promotion company founded by Hitoshi Sakimoto.


Sherman Hemsley (born February 1, 1938 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an Emmy Award nominated and NAACP Image Award winning, and Golden Globe nominated African American character actor most famous for his roles as George Jefferson, on the television shows All in the Family and The Jeffersons and as Deacon Ernest Frye on Amen. He also played Earl Sinclair's horrifying boss, a Triceratops named B.P. Richfield on the Jim Henson sitcom, Dinosaurs.
Hemsley and his TV wife, Isabel Sanford, were very popular as the Jeffersons, but were typecast by the roles and were mostly limited to guest TV appearances and cameo appearances in movies, appearing in The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, Designing Women, In Living Color, Family Matters, The Wayans Bros., Sister, Sister, Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman and The Hughleys.
Sherman Hemsley In 1984, Hemsley and Sanford had a special guest appearance on the Italian TV show Grand Hotel (playing their Jeffersons role); they were also invited to the Gran Premio Internazionale della TV, an Italian TV award show (similar to Emmy Awards) promoted by TV Sorrisi e Canzoni magazine, where they got the 'Telegatto' award for the best sitcom aired on Italian TVs.


Love At First Bite (1979)
Stewardess School (1986)
Ghost Fever (1987)
Club Fed (1990)
Mr. Nanny (1993)
Home of Angels (1994)
The Misery Brothers (1995)
Sprung (1997)
Senseless (1998)
Jane Austen's Mafia! (1998)
Screwed (2000)
For the Love of a Dog (2007)


Friendly Persuasion is a 1956 Civil War film starring Gary Cooper, Dorothy McGuire, Anthony Perkins, Richard Eyer, Robert Middleton and Phyllis Love. The screenplay was adapted by Michael Wilson from the 1945 novel The Friendly Persuasion by Jessamyn West, and was directed by William Wyler. The film was originally released with no screenwriting credit because Wilson was on the Hollywood blacklist. His credit was restored in 1996.

Friendly Persuasion (film)Friendly Persuasion (film) Awards
Friendly Persuasion was remade for television in 1975, starring Richard Kiley, Shirley Knight, Clifton James and Michael O'Keefe. It was adapted by William P. Wood and directed by Joseph Sargent. This version also included material from Jessamyn West's sequel novel, Except For Thee and Me.


Saunders Terrell, better known as Sonny Terry (24 October 1911, Greenboro, Georgia - 11 March 1986, Mineloa, New York) was a blues musician. He was most widely known for his energetic blues harmonica style, which frequently included vocal whoops and hollers, and imitations of trains and fox hunts.

Sonny Terry Career
His father, a farmer, taught him to play basic blues harp as a youth. He sustained injuries to his eyes at a young age, which eventually prevented him from doing farm work himself. In order to earn a living Terry was forced to play music. He began playing in Shelby, North Carolina. After his father died he began playing with Piedmont-style guitarist Blind Boy Fuller. When Fuller died, he established a long-standing musical relationship with Brownie McGhee, and the pair recorded numerous tracks together. The duo became well-known, even among white audiences, as they joined the growing folk movement of the 1950s and 1960s. This included collaborations with Woody Guthrie and Moses Asch, producing Folkways Records (now Smithsonian/Folkways) classic recordings.
In 1938 Terry was invited to play at Carnegie Hall for the first From Spirituals to Swing concert, and later that year he recorded for the Library of Congress. In 1940 Terry recorded his first commercial sides.
Despite their fame as "pure" folk artists, in the 1940s, Sonny and Brownie fronted a jump blues combo with honking saxophone that was variously called Brownie McGhee and his Jook House Rockers or Sonny Terry and his Buckshot Five.
Terry was also in the 1947 original cast of the Broadway musical comedy Finian's Rainbow.


* Professional club appearances and points counted for domestic first grade only.
Walter James "Wally" Lewis AM (born 1 December, 1959 in Brisbane, Queensland) is an Australian former rugby league footballer who was one of the most pre-eminent five-eighths of the 1980s.

Wally Lewis Personal

Football career
In his school days, Wally Lewis played representantive rugby union. After switching to league he played in the Brisbane Rugby League premiership with Brisbane Valleys from 1978-83, also making his debuts for Queensland and Australia during that time. He toured Great Britain with the 1982 "Invincibles" as vice-captain. Lewis played for English First Division side Wakefield Trinity for a short spell in 1983/84 and he remains a favourite of Trinity fans, who named their fanzine Wally Lewis is Coming. Trinity won 5 of 10 games during Lewis's stay, including a win over St.Helens in which Lewis scored a hat-trick. After his final match on 12 February Trinity did not win another game and were relegated to the second division. He then moved to Wynnum-Manly where he played from 1984 to 1987. In 1985, Lewis won the inaugral RLIF Golden Boot Award for best international player in the world. In 1987 he was honoured as a Member of the Order of Australia "for service to rugby league football".

BRL and England
Several New South Wales Rugby League premiership clubs attempted to lure Wally Lewis south during the 1980s, including Manly-Warringah which came closest to contracting him in 1986, but he signed with the Brisbane Broncos as inaugral captain of the side on their inception in 1988. Lewis was the Broncos' top try-scorer in their first season.
Two seasons later, in order to increase the Broncos' success in the Winfield Cup, Broncos coach Wayne Bennett controversially sacked Lewis as club captain and gave the role to centre, Gene Miles. Miles had retired from representative football, and Bennett hoped he could remove the team's reliance on Lewis. In another blow for the King, Lewis was moved from his favoured five-eighth position to lock to make way for new Canberra signing and Ipswich product Kevin Walters. Controversy reared in the 1990 semi-final victory over Manly-Warringah when Bennett left Lewis on the bench, even though Lewis was desperate to prove his fitness before the upcoming Kangaroo Tour, which he was eventually ruled out of.

Brisbane Broncos
In 1991, Lewis joined the Gold Coast Seagulls. He played both his last test match and his last State of Origin match that year. He captained and coached Gold Coast for two seasons in 1991 and 1992 but finished both seasons in last place. The following year he stopped playing but continued coaching the Seagulls, but departed after a third consecutive wooden spoon.
Lewis later coached the Queensland State of Origin side in 1993 and 1994 but never won a series.

Following his retirement from the sport, Lewis became a sports presenter for Channel Nine's National Nine News in his home town of Brisbane.
During the nightly news broadcast of 16 November 2006, Lewis previewed the sports segment but was not onscreen when the program returned from the commercial break, with newsreader Bruce Paige instead presenting the sports segment. A similar event occurred two weeks later, on 30 November, when Lewis appeared onscreen and began to read the autocue, saying "Good evening" before seeming distressed. A scheduled report was then played, with Paige delivering the rest of the bulletin. Following these events, Lewis was given medical leave for the rest of the year.


Rónald Gómez
National team caps and goals correct as of 20 June 2006.Rónald Gómez * Appearances (Goals)
Rónald Gómez Gómez (born January 24, 1975 in Puntarenas) is a Costa Rican football (soccer) forward.
An important player on the Costa Rican national team, Gómez played for his country at the 2002 World Cup, scoring two goals. As we head into the final stages of the tournament he has gained 78 caps and scored 23 times. He is one of Costa Rica's best forwards known for his powerful and precise shot.
He has played in Guatemala with CSD Municipal, at La Liga in Spain with Sporting de Gijón and Hercules of Alicante, as well as in Greece with OFI Crete. With Saprissa, he has won a national championship as well as he did with LD Alajuelense back in 95/96; and a CONCACAF Champions Cup, and was part of the team that played the 2005 FIFA Club World Championship Toyota Cup where Saprissa finished third behind São Paulo Futebol Clube and Liverpool F.C. He scored the winning goal in the lasts minutes of the game that Saprissa won in order to achieve the third place of the tournament against Al-Ittihadd. His goal was considered among the best of the cup.
His 1st year spell at APOEL FC was solid. Ronald Gomez, showed his class on occasions. After the season the team wanted him to return but he opted out of his contract in search for a more lucrative contract in a more competive european league. As this was not achieved he returned to his former club Saprissa in Costa Rica on a two year contract.
1 Lonnis • 2 Drummond • 3 Marín • 4 Wright • 5 Martínez • 6 López • 7 Fonseca • 8 Solís • 9 Wanchope • 10 Centeno • 11 Gómez • 12 Parks • 13 Vallejos • 14 Rodríguez • 15 Wallace • 16 Bryce • 17 Medford • 18 Mesén • 19 Cordero • 20 Sunsing • 21 Chinchilla • 22 Castro • 23 Morgan • Coach: Guimarães
1 Mesén • 2 Drummond • 3 Marín • 4 Umaña • 5 Martínez • 6 Fonseca • 7 Bolaños • 8 Solís • 9 Wanchope • 10 Centeno • 11 Gómez • 12 González • 13 Bernard • 14 Azofeifa • 15 Wallace • 16 Hernández • 17 Badilla • 18 Porras • 19 Saborío • 20 Sequeira • 21 Núñez • 22 Rodríguez • 23 Alfaro • Coach: Guimarães


ESPNHD, launched March 30th, 2003 is a high-definition simulcast of the cable television network ESPN, both owned by Disney that broadcasts 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ESPNHD along with sister network ABCHD use the 720p HD line standard because the ABC executives proposed a progressive 'p' signal resolves fluid and high speed motion in sports better, particurally during slow motion replays.

See also



Macworld Conference & Expo
Produced by Boston-based IDG World Expo, Macworld Conference & Expo is a trade show dedicated to the Apple Macintosh platform with conference tracks held annually in the United States, usually during the second week of January. Macworld is the most widely read Macintosh magazine in North America, and is a trademark of its publisher Mac Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of International Data Group. IDG World Expo is also a subsidiary of International Data Group. At one time, the show was known simply as Macworld Expo.
The Conference & Expo features educational conferences taught by leaders in their field, which require large admission fees to attend, and last for a few more days than the Expo. The Expo is open for a number of days (generally three or four), and attendees can visit the exhibits set up by hardware manufacturers and software publishers that support the Macintosh platform.
Until 2005 the show was held biannually, with an additional summer show held in the Eastern U.S.

Macworld Conference & Expo Culture
There was some discussion among critics about the necessity of having two Macworld events (referring to the San Francisco expo and the now-defunct New York/Boston summer expo) in the United States at a time when non-Mac focused events such as COMDEX were encountering financial trouble. Additionally, as Apple continues to expand its retail presence in the U.S. market, some have speculated that the need for an annual gathering of Mac enthusiasts has been reduced. (Apple seems to encourage this thinking by favorably comparing, on numerous occasions, the volume of visitors appearing in Apple retail stores to the number of attendees at Macworld Expo.) The emergence of the World Wide Web has also contributed to the decline in trade shows of relatively established markets such as the Macintosh business. Nevertheless, Macworld Expo is still one of the largest technology trade shows in the United States, as well as San Francisco's largest single trade show.


William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced [dʊˈboɪz]) (February 23, 1868August 27, 1963) was an American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. He became a naturalized citizen of Ghana in 1963 at the age of 95.

Early life
W. E. B. Du Bois was born on Church Street on February 23, 1868, in Great Barrington at the south-western edge of Massachusetts, to Alfred Du Bois and Mary Silvina Burghardt Du Bois, whose February 5, 1867, wedding had been announced in the Berkshire Courier. Alfred Du Bois had been born in Haiti.

Family history
Du Bois was born free and did not have contact with his biological father. He blamed his maternal grandparents for his father's leaving because they did not take kindly to him. Du Bois was very close to his mother, Mary. Du Bois moved frequently when he was young, after Mary suffered a stroke which left her unable to work. They survived on money from family members and Du Bois' after-school jobs. Du Bois wanted to help his mother as much as possible and believed he could improve their lives through education. Some of the neighborhood whites noticed him, and one allowed Du Bois and his mother to rent a house from him in Great Barrington.
While living there, Du Bois performed chores and worked odd jobs. Du Bois did not feel differently because of his skin color while he was in school. In fact the only times he felt out of place was when out-of-towners would visit Great Barrington. One such incident occurred when a white girl who was new in school refused to take one of his fake calling cards during a game. The girl told him she would not accept it because he was black. He then realized that there would always be some kind of barrier between whites and others.

After graduating from Fisk University in 1888, Du Bois took a bachelor's degree cum laude from Harvard College in 1890 (Harvard having refused to recognize the equivalency of his Fisk degree), and in 1892 received a stipend to attend the University of Berlin. While a student in Berlin, he travelled extensively throughout Europe, and came of age intellectually while studying with some of the most prominent social scientists in the German capital, such as Gustav von Schmoller. In 1895, Du Bois became the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University. After teaching at Wilberforce University in Ohio and the University of Pennsylvania, he established the department of sociology at Atlanta University (now Clark Atlanta University).

University education
Du Bois wrote many books including three major autobiographies. Among his works considered most significant were The Philadelphia Negro published in 1899, The Souls of Black Folk in 1903, John Brown in 1909, Black Reconstruction in 1935, and Black Folk, Then and Now in 1939. His book, The Negro (published in 1915) influenced the work of pioneer Africanist scholars as Drusilla Dunjee Houston and William Leo Hansberry. This theme was taken up later and expanded by Eric Foner and Leon F. Litwack, the two leading contemporary scholars of the Reconstruction era.

Du Bois began writing about crime in 1897, shortly after receiving his Ph.D. from Harvard (Zuckerman, 2004, p. 2). His first work involving crime was A Program of Social Reform was shortly followed by his second, The Study of the Negro Problems (Du Bois, 1897; Du Bois, 1898). The first work that involved in depth criminological study and theorizing was The Philadelphia Negro, in which a large section was devoted to analysis of the black criminal population in Philadelphia (Du Bois, 1899).
Du Bois (1899) sets forth three significant parts to his criminological theory. The first major part is that Negro crime is caused by the strain of the 'social revolution' experienced by black Americans as they began to adapt to their new found freedom and position in the nation. This theory is very similar to Durkheim's (1893) Anomie theory, but applied specifically to the newly freed Negro. This similarity is particularly interesting since Du Bois could not have read Durkheim's theory prior to publishing his own work. Du Bois (1900a, p. 3) credits emancipation with causing the boom in crime in the Negro population. He explains "the appearance of crime among the Southern Negroes is a symptom of wrong social conditions- of a stress of life greater than a large part of the community can bear"(Du Bois, 1901b, p. 745). He separates out the strains on southern Negroes from those on northern Negroes because the problems of city life were very different from those of the rural sharecropper.
Du Bois' (1904a) theory's second major part is that Negro crime declined as the American Negro population moved towards status. This idea, referred to later as stratification, is strikingly similar to Merton's (1968) structure-strain theory of deviance. In The Philadelphia Negro and later statistical studies, Du Bois found direct correlations between level of employment, level of education and criminal activity.
The final part of the theory is that the Talented Tenth or the 'exceptional men' of the black race would be the ones to lead the race and save it from its criminal problems (Du Bois, 1903, p. 33). Du Bois sees the evolution of a class system within black American society as necessary to carry out the improvements necessary to reduce crime in the black population (Du Bois, 1903). He sets forth a number of solutions to crime that this Talented Tenth must endeavor to enact (Du Bois, 1903, p. 2). Du Bois postulated early in his career that Negro crime was caused by the strain of the 'social revolution' experienced by black Americans as they began to adapt to their new found freedom and position in the nation (1899). He is perhaps the first criminologist to combine historical fact with social change, and use the combination to postulate his theories. He credited the crime increase after the civil war to "increased complexity of life," competition for jobs in industry, and the mass exodus from the farmland and immigration to the cities (Du Bois, 1899). Du Bois (1899, p. 64) states in The Philadelphia Negro:
"Naturally then, if men are suddenly transported from one environment to another, the result is lack of harmony with the new conditions; lack of harmony with the new physical surroundings leading to disease and death or modification of physique; lack of harmony with social surroundings leading to crime."

W. E. B. DuBois Criminology
Du Bois was the most prominent intellectual leader and political activist on behalf of African Americans in the first half of the twentieth century. A contemporary of Booker T. Washington, the two carried on a dialogue about segregation and political disenfranchisement. He was labeled "The Father of Pan-Africanism."
In 1905, Du Bois along with Minnesota attorney Fred L. McGhee and others helped to found the Niagara Movement with William Monroe Trotter but their alliance was short-lived as they had a dispute over whether or not white people should be included in the organization and in the struggle for Civil Rights. Du Bois felt that they should, and with a group of like-minded supporters, he helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
In 1910, he left his teaching post at Atlanta University to work as publications director at the NAACP full-time. He wrote weekly columns in many newspapers, including the Chicago Defender, the Pittsburgh Courier and the New York Amsterdam News, three African-American newspapers, and also the Hearst-owned San Francisco Chronicle.
For 25 years, Du Bois worked as Editor-in-Chief of the NAACP publication, The Crisis, which then included the subtitle A Record of the Darker Races. He commented freely and widely on current events and set the agenda for the fledgling NAACP. Its circulation soared from 1,000 in 1910 to more than 100,000 by 1920.
Du Bois was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, a fraternity with a civil rights focus, and the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African Americans.

Civil rights activism
In 1909, W. E. B. Du Bois addressed the American Historical Association (AHA). According to David Levering Lewis, "His would be the first and last appearance of an African American on the program until 1940."

American Historical Association
Du Bois became impressed by the growing strength of Imperial Japan following the Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War. Du Bois saw the victory of Japan over Tsarist Russia as an example of "colored pride". According to historian David Levering Lewis, Du Bois became a willing part of Japan's so-called "Negro Propaganda Operations" run by Japanese academic and Imperial Agent Hikida Yasuichi.

Imperial Japan and Nazi Germany

Later life
Du Bois was investigated by the FBI, who claimed in May of 1942 that "[h]is writing indicates him to be a socialist," and that he "has been called a Communist and at the same time criticized by the Communist Party." century approach his stature."
Du Bois was chairman of the Peace Information Center at the start of the Korean War. He was among the signers of the Stockholm Peace Pledge, which opposed the use of nuclear weapons. In 1950, he ran for the U.S. Senate on the American Labor Party ticket in New York and received 4% of the vote. He was indicted in the United States under the Foreign Agents Registration Act and acquitted for lack of evidence. W. E. B. Du Bois became disillusioned with both black capitalism and racism in the United States. In 1959, Du Bois received the Lenin Peace Prize. In 1961, at the age of 93, he joined the Communist Party USA.

Communist Party
Du Bois was invited to Ghana in 1961 by President Kwame Nkrumah to direct the Encyclopedia Africana, a government production, and a long-held dream of his. When, in 1963, he was refused a new U.S. passport, he and his wife, Shirley Graham Du Bois, became citizens of Ghana, making them dual citizens of Ghana and the United States. Du Bois' health had declined in 1962, and on August 27, 1963, he died in Accra, Ghana at the age of ninety-five, one day before Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.

Du Bois' name is sometimes misspelled "DuBois," "du Bois," or "duBois;" the correct spelling separates the two syllables and capitalizes each.
Although the name is of French origin, Du Bois himself pronounced it [dʊˈboɪz] instead of the French [dyˈbwɑ].

Pronunciation and spelling of Du Bois

Works published

Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880 by W. E. Burghardt Du Bois , with introduction by Du Bois biographer David Levering Lewis. 768 pages. (Free Press: 1995 reissued from 1935 original) ISBN 0684856573. This is the longest work by Du Bois.
The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America: 1638–1870 PhD dissertation, 1896, (Harvard Historical Studies, Longmans, Green, and Co.: New York) Full Text
The Study of the Negro Problems (1898)
The Philadelphia Negro (1899)
The Negro in Business (1899)
The Evolution of Negro Leadership. The Dial, 31 (July 16, 1901).
[1903] (1999) The Souls of Black Folk. ISBN 0-393-97393-X. 
The Talented Tenth, second chapter of The Negro Problem, a collection of articles by African Americans (September 1903).
Voice of the Negro II (September 1905)
John Brown: A Biography (1909)
Efforts for Social Betterment among Negro Americans (1909)
Atlanta University's Studies of the Negro Problem (1897-1910)
The Quest of the Silver Fleece 1911
The Negro (1915)
Darkwater (1920)
The Gift of Black Folk (1924)
Dark Princess: A Romance (1928)
Africa, its Geography, People and Products (1930)
Africa: Its Place in Modern History (1930)
Black Reconstruction: An Essay toward a History of the Part which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880 (1935)
What the Negro has Done for the United States and Texas (1936)
Black Folk, Then and Now (1939)
Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept (1940)
Color and Democracy: Colonies and Peace (1945)
The Encyclopedia of the Negro (1946)
The World and Africa (1946)
Peace is Dangerous (1951)
I take my stand for Peace (1951)
In Battle for Peace (1952)
The Black Flame: A Trilogy
The Ordeal of Mansart (1957)
Mansart Builds a School (1959)
Africa in Battle Against Colonialism, Racialism, Imperialism (1960)
Worlds of Color (1961)
An ABC of Color: Selections from Over a Half Century of the Writings of W. E. B. Du Bois (1963)
The World and Africa, An Inquiry into the Part Which Africa has Played in World History (1965)
The Autobiography of W.E. Burghardt Du Bois (International publishers, 1968) Books

The American Negro Academy Occasional Papers, 1897, No. 2 "The Conservation Of Races" full text Articles

Writings: The Suppression of the African Slave-Trade, The Souls of Black Folk, Dusk of Dawn (Nathan I. Huggins, ed.) (Library of America, 1986) ISBN 978-0-94045033-2 Published as

David Levering Lewis W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919 (Owl Books 1994). Winner of the 1994 Pulitzer Prize for Biography[2] and winner also of the 1994 Bancroft Prize and the Francis Parkman Prize for historical research and writing.
David Levering Lewis W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919-1963 (Owl Books 2001). Covers the second half of the life of W. E. B. Du Bois, charting 44 years of the culture and politics of race in the United States. Winner of the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Biography [3] Bibliography
In 1992, the United States honored W. E. B. Du Bois with his portrait on a postage stamp.
On October 5, 1994, the main library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst was named after him.
Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African-American Experience (New York: Basic-Civitas, 1999, Hardcover, 2144 pp. ISBN 0-465-00071-1) was inspired by and dedicated to W. E. B. Du Bois by its editors, Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr..


Marcedes Lewis
Marcedes Alexis Lewis (born May 19, 1984 in Los Alamitos, California) is an American football tight end who plays for the National Football League Jacksonville Jaguars. He was drafted from UCLA as the 28th pick in the 2006 NFL Draft. He was UCLA's only tight end to win the John Mackey Award for the best tight end in college football when he won in 2005. He graduated from Long Beach Polytechnic High School.

2005 John Mackey Award
Jacksonville Jaguars (2006-Present) Collegiate career

2005 John Mackey Award (Best TE)
2005 All-American Team
2005 All-Pac 10 Team
2004 John Mackey Award Finalist (Best TE)
2004 All-American Team
2004 All-Pac 10 Team
Prep Star Dream Team (Best Prep TE)
Super Prep All-American
Super Prep Elite (rated #4)
Parade All-American
Student Sports Hot 100 List (#30)


A root cause is an initiating cause of a causal chain which leads to an outcome or effect of interest. Commonly, root cause is used to describe the depth in the causal chain where an intervention could reasonably be implemented to change performance and prevent an undesirable outcome.
The term root cause has been used in professional journals as early as 1905, but the lack of a widely accepted definition after all this time indicates that there are significantly different interpretations of exactly what constitutes a root cause.
The two biggest differences in viewpoint regard the possibility of an outcome having more than one root cause.

Root cause Multiple causes
Effects have causes. The causes may be natural or man-made, active or passive, initiating or permitting, obvious or hidden. Those causes that lead immediately to the effect are often called direct or proximate causes (see proximate causation). The direct causes often result from another set of causes, which could be called intermediate causes, and these may be the result of still other causes. When a chain of cause and effect is followed from a known end-state, back to an origin or starting point, root causes are found. The process used to find root causes is called root cause analysis.
The usual purpose of attempting to find root causes is to solve a problem that has actually occurred, or to prevent a less serious problem from escalating to an unacceptable level (see Near miss (safety), for example). The basic concept is that solving a problem by addressing root causes is ultimately more effective than merely addressing symptoms or direct causes. Consider the following example, where root cause a leads to effect e, with a few intervening steps.
a to b to c to d to e
Assume each of these factors is as described below:
The effect, e, could be prevented by addressing any of the other factors. For example, attaching jumper cables from another car (addressing factor d) will probably allow the problem-car to be started. However, this solution is not likely to provide long-lasting relief from the undesired effect, as factor c will ensure that the car shuts down again in a very short period of time. Addressing factor c by repairing the alternator may solve the problem for a longer period, but factor b will eventually result in another age-related breakdown in the alternator. The alternator could be replaced with a new unit, addressing factor b, thus allowing the car to be driven for an extended period of time. However, factor a will eventually ensure that the car breaks down again for some other reason. Many peope stop the root-cause analysis here, arguing that the solution to the problem (and many other potential problems) is to maintain the car properly, which addresses factor a, the root cause.
One difficulty with root cause analysis is knowing when to stop. The above analysis stops with the following of procedures. The alternator was not maintained properly, so blame the people who were responsible for the maintenance: call that the root cause, find the people responsible and instruct them to do the required maintenance in the future. Experts in human-machine interaction would argue that this is an inappropriate stopping point. Failure to follow the maintenance procedure is still an intermediate cause of the problem. The root cause analysis should go even more deeply: Why wasn't the maintenance done? Would could be changed to ensure either that the maintenance was done when required or, better yet, that maintenance would not be required (or perhaps, required less frequently).
An issue closely related to solving an existing problem is to foster learning that will embed knowledge (within a person, group, or organization) that may help prevent similar problems from occurring in the future. Such knowledge is often referred to as lessons-learned. Gaining such knowledge, retaining it, and using it effectively is one of the goals of a learning organization engaged in continuous improvement.
Practitioners of root cause analysis often define what the phrase "root cause" means for a particular setting and application. The benefits of finding deeper layers of root cause tend to diminish after a certain point. The practical application of root cause analysis therefore often searches only as long as the benefit of answers outweighs the effort of the search.

e: car will not start
d: battery is dead
c: alternator does not function
b: alternator is well beyond its designed service life
a: car is not being maintained according to recommended service schedule


Queensboro Bridge
The Queensboro Bridge, also known as the 59th Street Bridge, is a cantilever bridge over the East River in New York City that was completed in 1909. It connects the neighborhood of Long Island City in the borough of Queens with Manhattan, passing over Roosevelt Island. It carries New York State Route 25 and once carried NY 24 and NY 25A as well.
The Queensboro Bridge is the only one of the four East River spans that carries a route number (excluding the Triborough Bridge): NY 25 terminates at the west (Manhattan) side of the bridge. It is commonly called the "59th Street Bridge" by New York City residents because its Manhattan end is located between 59th and 60th Streets. The alternative name was popularized by the Simon and Garfunkel song The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin' Groovy), although New Yorkers took to calling it the 59th Street Bridge long before the song.

Queensboro Bridge Rail tracks

In F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby, Jay Gatsby and Nick Carraway traverse the bridge on their way from Long Island to Manhattan. "The city seen from the Queensboro Bridge," Nick says, "is always the city seen for the first time, in its first wild promise of all the mystery and the beauty in the world".
In the novel Charlotte's Web, Charlotte refers to the Queensboro Bridge as a sort of human-made spider web.
As previously mentioned, the bridge is featured (as the 59th Street Bridge) in the title of the Simon and Garfunkel song The 59th Street Bridge Song (Feelin' Groovy).
The Queensboro is prominently displayed during the opening credits of the television series Taxi, as a cab (driven by series star Tony Danza) drives across it.
The bridge is the setting for a significant scene in the 2002 movie Spider-Man. In that movie, the Green Goblin throws Mary Jane Watson from the bridge, and Spider-Man must decide between saving her or passengers on the Roosevelt Island tram.
In Ultimate Spider-Man #25, the Green Goblin kidnaps Mary Jane Watson and throws her off the bridge.
The Queensboro Bridge is prominently displayed in anime Red Garden, even sustaining extensive damages due to a battle.
The theme song of the CBS sitcom The King of Queens include the lyrics "Sitting here in traffic on the Queensboro Bridge tonight."
The Queensboro Bridge was used in the thrill ride Kongfrontation at Universal Studios Florida. The ride, based on King Kong, had passengers riding the Roosevelt Island Tramway from Manhattan to Roosevelt Island. A mechanical King Kong attacked the cars while hanging off the Queensboro Bridge.
The 59th Street Bridge was blasted by supervillain Hank Scorpio in The Simpsons episode "You Only Move Twice", in a plot to blackmail the UN.
The Queensboro Bridge plays a key role in the opening and chase sequences in King of New York.
In 1992's Home Alone 2: Lost in New York, a taxi drives Kevin McCallister Macaulay Culkin across the upper deck of the bridge.
The bridge was featured in the 1981 John Carpenter film Escape from New York. The bridge was one of the last intact links to the Manhattan Island prison and was land mined to thwart escape attempts.
The bridge is seen in the Woody Allen film Manhattan in an iconic visual.
The opening sequence to the animated TV show The Critic recreates the aforementioned Manhattan scene, with the bridge collapsing in the river for comic effect.
The opening sequence in the film New Jack City is set on the bridge, in which Wesley Snipes' character throws a rival off to his death.
Musician David Mead included a song called "Queensboro Bridge" on his 2004 album Indiana.
The Queensboro Bridge was featured in the opening and closing credits of Archie Bunker's Place.
On the album Stillmatic by Queensbridge rapper Nas, the inner-lining features the bridge on many pictures.
Frequently seen in the background from a patio on which episodes of the Food Network show "Boy Meets Grill" featuring NYC chef Bobby Flay are filmed.
In "The Game's" song "300 Bars and Runnin'" these lyrics are featured: "He got G-Unit wings, throw them off the Queens Bridge"
The Queensboro Bridge was featured in the movie "Turk 182". Graffiti artist, Turk 182 (Jimmy Lynch) played by Timothy Hutton climbs the Queensboro Bridge and spells his tag "Turk 182" in lights.
The Queensboro Bridge lies along the 16th mile of the New York City Marathon race. It is considered a pivotal point of the route as the climb during on it approaches cause many runners severe fatigue.


Hyper inflation Characteristics
The main cause of hyperinflation is a massive imbalance between the supply and demand of a certain currency or type of money, usually due to a complete loss of confidence in the currency similar to a bank run. First, the enactment of legal tender laws prevent discounting the value of paper money vis-a vis gold, silver or a hard currency, by forcing acceptance of a paper money which lacks intrinsic value. If the entity responsible for printing a currency then promotes excessive money printing, with other factors contributing a reinforcing effect, hyperinflation usually occurs. Often the body responsible for printing the currency cannot physically print paper currency faster than the rate at which it is devaluing, thus neutralising their attempts to stimulate the economy.
Hyperinflation is generally associated with paper money because the means to increasing the money supply with paper money is the simplest: add more zeroes to the plates and print, or even stamp old notes with new numbers. It also is the most dramatic so far with electronic money now posing the possibility of even faster "printing" and de-regulated capital markets allowing currency to "go global". There have been numerous episodes of hyperinflation, followed by a return to "hard money". Older economies would revert to hard currency and barter when the circulating medium became excessively devalued, generally following a "run" on the store of value.
Unlike inflation, which is widely considered to be normal in a healthy economy, hyperinflation is always regarded as destructive. It effectively wipes out the purchasing power of private and public savings, distorts the economy in favor of extreme consumption and hoarding of real assets, causes the monetary base whether specie or hard currency to flee the country, and makes the afflicted area anathema to investment. Hyperinflation is met with drastic remedies, whether by imposing a shock therapy of slashing government expenditures or by altering the currency basis. An example of the latter is placing the nation in question under a currency board as Bosnia-Herzegovina had in 2005, which allows the central bank to print only as much money as it has in foreign reserves. Another example is dollarization as Ecuador officially initiated in September 2000 in response to a massive 75% loss of value of the Sucre currency in early January 2000. Dollarization is the use of a foreign currency (not necessarily the U.S. dollar) as a national unit of currency.
The aftermath of hyperinflation is equally complex. As hyperinflation has always been a traumatic experience for the area which suffers it, the next policy regime almost always enacts policies to prevent its recurrence. Often this means making the central bank very aggressive about maintaining price stability as is the case with the German Bundesbank, or moving to some hard basis of currency such as a currency board. Many governments have enacted extremely stiff wage and price controls in the wake of hyperinflation, which is, in effect, a form of forced savings: goods become unavailable, and hence people hoard cash, as was the case in the People's Republic of China under the "Great Leap Forward" and "Cultural Revolution".
For a variety of reasons, governments have occasionally resorted to printing money to meet their expenses. During hyperinflation, the monetary authority can't even do that as it becomes a net loss. Those holding government debt, directly or indirectly, have less buying power. Theories of hyperinflation generally look for a relationship between seignorage and the inflation tax. In both Cagan's model and the neo-classical models, a crucial point is when the increase in money supply or the drop in basic money stock makes it impossible for a government to improve its financial position. Thus when fiat money is printed, government obligations that are not denominated in money increase in cost by more than the value of the money created.
From this, it might be wondered why any state would engage in actions that cause or continue hyperinflation. One reason is that often the alternative to hyperinflation is depression. In late 2001, the Argentine peso collapsed in value. Rather than printing sufficient cash for the public to carry, which they feared would start a run on the banks, the government took the peso off its dollar peg. Many international economists predicted that they would have to get a new loan from the IMF and impose shock therapy in order to avoid hyperinflation. Currency controls were imposed, tariffs were instituted, and the economy was allowed to fall into a severe recession during which unemployment hit 25%, homelessness and crime spiraled upwards, and the poverty rate peaked at over 50%.
The root cause is a matter of more dispute. In both classical economics and monetarism, it is always the result of the monetary authority irresponsibly borrowing money to pay all its expenses. These models focus on the unrestrained seignorage of the monetary authority, and the gains from the inflation tax. In Neoliberalism, hyperinflation is considered to be the result of a crisis of confidence. The monetary base of the country flees, producing widespread fear that individuals will not be able to convert local currency to some more transportable form, such as gold or an internationally recognized hard currency. This is a quantity theory of hyper-inflation.
In neo-classical economic theory, hyperinflation is rooted in a deterioration of the monetary base, that is the confidence that there is a store of value which the currency will be able to command later. In this model, the perceived risk of holding currency rises dramatically, and sellers demand increasingly high premiums to accept the currency. This in turn leads to a greater fear that the currency will collapse, causing even higher premiums. One example of this is during periods of warfare, civil war, or intense internal conflict of other kinds: governments need to do whatever is necessary to continue fighting, since the alternative is defeat. Expenses cannot be cut significantly since the main outlay is armaments. Further, a civil war may make it difficult to raise taxes or to collect existing taxes. While in peacetime the deficit is financed by selling bonds, during a war it is typically difficult and expensive to borrow, especially if the war is going poorly for the government in question. The banking authorities, whether central or not, "monetize" the deficit, printing money to pay for the government's efforts to survive. The hyperinflation under the Chinese Nationalists from 1939-1945 is a classic example of a government printing money to pay civil war costs. By the end, currency was flown in over the Himalaya, and then old currency was flown out to be destroyed.
Hyperinflation is regarded as a complex phenomenon and one explanation may not be applicable to all cases. However, in both of these models, whether loss of confidence comes first, or central bank seignorage, the other phase is ignited. In the case of rapid expansion of the money supply, prices rise rapidly in response to the increased supply of money relative to the supply of goods and services, and in the case of loss of confidence, the monetary authority responds to the risk premiums it has to pay by "running the printing presses".
In the United States of America, hyperinflation was seen during the Revolutionary War and during the Civil War, especially on the Confederate side. Many other cases of extreme social conflict encouraging hyperinflation can be seen, as in Germany after World War I, Hungary at the end of World War II and in Yugoslavia in late 1980s just before break up of the country.
Less commonly, hyperinflation may occur when there is debasement of the coinage — wherein coins are consistently shaved of some of their silver and gold, increasing the circulating medium and reducing the value of the currency. The "shaved" specie is then often restruck into coins with lower weight of gold or silver. Historical examples include Ancient Rome, China during the Song Dynasty, and the United States beginning in 1933. When "token" coins begin circulating, it is possible for the minting authority to engage in fiat creation of currency.
Hyperinflation can also occur in the absence of a central bank. One case is when there is "free banking" yet a government allows a bank to suspend convertibility, often in violation of explicit or implicit promises and contracts. These episodes often cause a panicked run on other banks and a collapse in the available money supply, leading to a depression and deflation.

Root causes of hyperinflation
The hyperinflation episode in the Weimar Republic in the 1920s was not the first hyperinflation, nor was it the only one in early 1920s Europe. However, as the most prominent case following the emergence of economics as a science, it drew interest in a way that previous instances had not. Many of the surreal economic behaviors now associated with hyperinflation were first documented systematically in Germany: order-of-magnitude increases in prices and interest rates, redenomination of the currency, consumer flight from cash to hard assets, and the rapid expansion of industries that produced those assets.
It is sometimes argued that Germany had to inflate its currency to pay the war reparations required under the Treaty of Versailles, but this is only part of the story. Reparations accounted for about one third of the German deficit from 1920 to 1923 (Costantino Bresciani-Turroni, The Economics of Inflation. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1937. p. 93). Nonetheless, the government found reparations a convenient scapegoat. Other scapegoats included bankers and speculators (particularly foreign). The inflation reached its peak by November 1923, but ended when a new currency (the Rentenmark) was introduced. The government stated this new currency had a fixed value, and this was accepted.
Hyperinflation did not directly bring about the Nazi takeover of Germany; the inflation ended with the introduction of the Rentenmark and the Weimar Republic continued for a decade afterward. The inflation did, however, raise doubts about the competence of liberal institutions, especially amongst a middle class who had held cash savings and bonds. It also produced resentment of Germany's bankers and speculators, many of them Jewish, whom the government and press blamed for the inflation.

The 1920s German inflation
Since hyperinflation is visible as a monetary effect, models of hyperinflation center on the demand for money. Economists see both a rapid increase in the money supply and an increase in the velocity of money. Either one or both of these encourage inflation and hyperinflation. A dramatic increase in the velocity of money as the cause of hyperinflation is central to the "crisis of confidence" model of hyperinflation, where the risk premium that sellers demand for the paper currency over the nominal value grows rapidly. The second theory is that there is first a radical increase in the amount of circulating medium, which can be called the "monetary model" of hyperinflation. In either model, the second effect then follows from the first — either too little confidence forcing an increase in the money supply, or too much money destroying confidence.
In the confidence model, some event, or series of events, such as defeats in battle, or a run on stocks of the specie which back a currency, removes the belief that the authority issuing the money will remain solvent — whether a bank or a government. Because people do not want to hold notes which may become valueless, they want to spend them in preference to holding notes which will lose value. Sellers, realizing that there is a higher risk for the currency, demand a greater and greater premium over the original value. Under this model, the method of ending hyperinflation is to change the backing of the currency — often by issuing a completely new one. War is one commonly cited cause of crisis of confidence, particularly losing in a war, as occurred during Napoleonic Vienna, and capital flight, sometimes because of "contagion" is another. In this view, the increase in the circulating medium is the result of the government attempting to buy time without coming to terms with the root cause of the lack of confidence itself.
In the monetary model, hyperinflation is a positive feedback cycle of rapid monetary expansion. It has the same cause as all other inflation: money-issuing bodies, central or otherwise, produce currency to pay spiralling costs, often from lax fiscal policy, or the mounting costs of warfare. When businesspeople perceive that the issuer is committed to a policy of rapid currency expansion, they mark up prices to cover the expected decay in the currency's value. The issuer must then accelerate its expansion to cover these prices, which pushes the currency value down even faster than before. According to this model the issuer cannot "win" and the only solution is to abruptly stop expanding the currency. Unfortunately, the end of expansion can cause a severe financial shock to those using the currency as expectations are suddenly adjusted. This policy, combined with reductions of pensions, wages, and government outlays, formed part of the Washington consensus of the 1990s.
Whatever the cause, hyperinflation involves both the supply and velocity of money. Which comes first is a matter of debate, and there may be no universal story that applies to all cases. But once the hyperinflation is established, the pattern of increasing the money stock, by which ever agencies are allowed to do so, is universal. Because this practice increases the supply of currency without any matching increase in demand for it, the price of the currency, that is the exchange rate, naturally falls relative to other currencies. Inflation becomes hyperinflation when the increase in money supply turns specific areas of pricing power into a general frenzy of spending quickly before money becomes worthless. The purchasing power of the currency drops so rapidly that holding cash for even a day is an unacceptable loss of purchasing power. As a result, no one holds currency, which increases the velocity of money, and worsens the crisis.
That is, rapidly rising prices undermine money's role as a store of value, so that people try to spend it on real goods or services as quickly as possible. Thus, the monetary model predicts that the velocity of money will rise endogenously as a result of the excessive increase in the money supply. At the point where ordinary purchases are affected by inflation pressures, hyperinflation is out of control, in the sense that ordinary policy mechanisms, such as increasing reserve requirements, raising interest rates or cutting government spending will all be responded to by shifting away from the rapidly dwindling currency and towards other means of exchange.
During a period of hyperinflation, bank runs, loans for 24 hour periods, switching to alternate currencies, the return to use of gold or silver or even barter becomes common. Many of the people who hoard gold today expect hyperinflation, and are hedging against it by holding specie. There is, also, extensive capital flight or flight to a "hard" currency such as the U.S. dollar. These are sometimes met with capital controls, an idea which has swung from standard, to anathema, and back into semi-respectability. All of this constitutes an economy which is operating in an "abnormal" way, which may lead to decreases in real production. If so, that intensifies the hyperinflation, since it means that the amount of goods in "too much money chasing too few goods" formulation is also reduced. This is also part of the vicious circle of hyperinflation.
Once the vicious circle of hyperinflation has been ignited, dramatic policy means are almost always required, simply raising interest rates is insufficient. Bolivia, for example, underwent a period of hyperinflation in 1985, where prices increased 12,000% in the space of less than a year. The government raised the price of gasoline, which it had been selling at a huge loss to quiet popular discontent, and the hyperinflation came to a halt almost immediately, since it was able to bring in hard currency by selling its oil abroad. The crisis of confidence ended, and people returned deposits to banks. The German hyperinflation of the 1920s was ended by producing a currency based on assets loaned against by banks, called the Rentenmark. Hyperinflation often ends when a civil conflict ends with one side winning. Though sometimes used, wage and price controls to control or prevent inflation, no episode of hyperinflation has been ended by the use of price controls alone, though they have sometimes been part of the mix of policies used to halt hyperinflation.

Models of hyperinflation
As noted, in countries experiencing hyperinflation, the central bank often prints money in larger and larger denominations as the smaller denomination notes become worthless. This can result in the production of some interesting banknotes, including those denominated in amounts of 1,000,000,000 or more.
One way to avoid the use of large numbers is by declaring a new unit of currency (so, instead of 10,000,000,000 Dollars, a bank might set 1 new dollar = 1,000,000,000 old dollars, so the new note would read "10 new dollars".) An example of this would be Turkey's revaluation of the Lira on January 1, 2005, when the old Turkish Lira (TRL) was converted to the new Turkish Lira (YTL) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish Lira. While this does not lessen actual value of a currency, it is called revaluation and also happens over time in countries with standard inflation levels. During hyperinflation, currency inflation happens so quickly that bills reach large numbers before revaluation.
Some banknotes were stamped to indicate changes of denomination. This is because it would take too long to print new notes. By time the new notes would be printed, they would be obsolete (that is, they would be of too low a denomination to be useful).
Metallic coins were rapid casualties of hyperinflation, as the scrap value of metal enormously exceeded the face value. Massive amounts of coinage were melted down, usually illicitly, and exported for hard currency.
Governments will often try to disguise the true rate of inflation through a variety of techniques. These can include the following:
None of these actions address the root causes of inflation, and in fact, if discovered, tend to further undermine trust in the currency, causing further increases in inflation. Price controls will generally result in hoarding and extremely high demand for the controlled goods, resulting in shortages; additionally, supply may diminish as producers no longer find it sufficiently profitable to continue producing such goods, further exacerbating the problem.

By late 1923, the Weimar Republic of Germany was issuing fifty-million Mark banknotes and postage stamps with a face value of fifty billion Mark. The highest value banknote issued by the Weimar government's Reichsbank had a face value of 100 billion Mark (100,000,000,000,000) {100 Trillion US/UK}. [1]. One of the firms printing these notes submitted an invoice for the work to the Reichsbank for 32,776,899,763,734,490,417.05 (3.28×10%) for July, 1946, amounting to prices doubling every fifteen hours.
Outright lying as to official statistics such as money supply, inflation or reserves.
Suppression of publication of money supply statistics, or inflation indices.
Price and wage controls.
Forced savings schemes, designed to suck up excess liquidity. These savings schemes may be described as pensions schemes, emergency funds, war funds, or similar.
Adjusting the components of the Consumer Price Index, to remove those items whose prices are rising the fastest. Hyperinflation and the currency
Angola went through the worst inflation from 1991 to 1995. In early 1991, the highest denomination was 50,000 kwanzas. By 1994, it was 500,000 kwanzas. In the 1995 currency reform, 1 kwanza reajustado was exchanged for 1,000 kwanzas. The highest denomination in 1995 was 5,000,000 kwanzas reajustados. In the 1999 currency reform, 1 new kwanza was exchanged for 1,000,000 kwanzas reajustados. The overall impact of hyperinflation: 1 new kwanza = 1,000,000,000 pre 1991 kwanzas.
Argentina went through steady inflation from 1975 to 1991. At the beginning of 1975, the highest denomination was 1,000 pesos. In late 1976, the highest denomination was 5,000 pesos. In early 1979, the highest denomination was 10,000 pesos. By the end of 1981, the highest denomination was 1,000,000 pesos. In the 1983 currency reform, 1 Peso Argentino was exchanged for 10,000 pesos. In the 1985 currency reform, 1 austral was exchanged for 1,000 pesos argentino. In the 1992 currency reform, 1 new peso was exchanged for 10,000 australes. The overall impact of hyperinflation: 1 new peso = 100,000,000,000 pre-1983 pesos.
Between 1921 and 1922, inflation in Austria reached 134%.
Belarus went through steady inflation from 1994 to 2002. In 1993, the highest denomination was 5,000 rublei. By 1999, it was 5,000,000 rublei. In the 2000 currency reform, the ruble was replaced by the new ruble at an exchange rate of 1 new ruble = 1,000 old rublei. The highest denomination in 2002 was 50,000 rublei, equal to 50,000,000 pre-2000 rublei.
Bolivia went through the worst inflation between 1984 and 1986. Before 1984, the highest denomination was 1,000 pesos bolivianos. By 1985, the highest denomination was 10 Million pesos bolivianos. In 1985, a Bolivian note for 1 million pesos was worth 55 cents in US dollars, one-thousandth of its exchange value of $5,000 less than three years previously. pre 1989 zaires.

Zimbabwe, 2000s

Inflation accounting
Chronic inflation
Gold as an investment
Store of value
List of economics topics