Sean Mackle

Valdas Ivanauskas has stated that 'Sean has got the ability to play at the very top! I wish he was Lithuanian'.
Sean has recently agreed to join cowdenbeath on loan for a two month period, to gain first team experience. Making his debut in a 1-1 draw at home to airdrie.


Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV) is an organization of male descendants of soldiers who served the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. SCV membership is open to male descendants (lineal and collateral) of soldiers who fought for and honorably served the Confederate States of America.

The Sons of Confederate Veterans describes its mission as "preserving the history and legacy of [Confederate] heroes, so future generations can understand the motives that animated the Southern Cause."
The SCV's home office remained at Richmond for many years, but was in recent times relocated to Columbia, Tennessee, where it is housed in an historic antebellum mansion, Elm Springs.

License plates
In the 1990s, disagreements over the purpose of the organization emerged within the SCV. At issue was an alleged shift in the SCV's mission from "maintaining gravestones, erecting monuments and studying Civil War history" to more issue-centric concerns. The SCV's new concerns included "fight[ing] for the right to display Confederate symbols everywhere from schools to statehouses."

In 2002, the SCV was criticized by left-of-center publications and a group of SCV dissenters for the SCV's views of Civil War history and the organization's alleged association with neo-confederate individuals and organizations. Joe Conason, writing in Salon, and Jason Zengerle, writing in The New Republic, have argued that the SCV has morphed from an apolitical organization dedicated to Civil War history to a politicized organization dedicated to preserving the "Lost Cause" version of the history of the Civil War and the 1861-1865 era.

Sons of Confederate Veterans Notable members

Confederate States of America memorials and cemeteries
League of the South
Mcgavock Confederate Cemetery
Southern Poverty Law Center


Part of a series on The Bible (see The Hebrew Bible below)
(see The New Testament below)
The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings or books of Judaism and Christianity.
Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism generally adapt the textual critical approach in toto and regard the Torah as either inspired rather than revealed, or a human product rather than the product of an external God.

In 1943 pope Pius XII's encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu gave the Vatican's imprimatur to textual criticism.

See Biblical exegesis

Hebrew Bible Tanakh Old Testament Writings Prophets Chapters and verses of the Bible Wycliffe Bible Translators Documentary hypothesis Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an Differences between the Bible and the Qur'anBible Biblical inerrancy Criticism of the Bible Part of Category:Judaism
Part of a series on Christianity
1. Genesis, Ge—Bereshit (בראשית)
2. Exodus, Ex—Shemot (שמות)
3. Leviticus, Le—Vayikra (ויקרא)
4. Numbers, Nu—Bamidbar (במדבר)
5. Deuteronomy, Dt—Devarim (דברים)
6. Joshua, Js—Yehoshua (יהושע)
7. Judges, Jg—Shoftim (שופטים)
8. Samuel, includes First and Second, 1Sa–2Sa—Shemuel (שמואל)
9. Kings, includes First and Second, 1Ki–2Ki—Melakhim (מלכים)
10. Isaiah, Is—Yeshayahu (ישעיהו)
11. Jeremiah, Je—Yirmiyahu (ירמיהו)
12. Ezekiel, Ez—Yekhezkel (יחזקאל)
13. Twelve, includes all Minor Prophets—Tre Asar (תרי עשר)

  • a. Hosea, Ho—Hoshea (הושע)
    b. Joel, Jl—Yoel (יואל)
    c. Amos, Am—Amos (עמוס)
    d. Obadiah, Ob—Ovadyah (עבדיה)
    e. Jonah, Jh—Yonah (יונה)
    f. Micah, Mi—Mikhah (מיכה)
    g. Nahum, Na—Nahum (נחום)
    h. Habakkuk, Hb—Havakuk (חבקוק)
    i. Zephaniah, Zp—Tsefanya (צפניה)
    j. Haggai, Hg—Khagay (חגי)
    k. Zechariah, Zc—Zekharyah (זכריה)
    l. Malachi, Ml—Malakhi (מלאכי)
    14. Psalms, Ps—Tehillim (תהלים)
    15. Proverbs, Pr—Mishlei (משלי)
    16. Job, Jb—Iyyov (איוב)
    17. Song of Songs, So—Shir ha-Shirim (שיר השירים)
    18. Ruth, Ru—Rut (רות)
    19. Lamentations, La—Eikhah (איכה), also called Kinot (קינות)
    20. Ecclesiastes, Ec—Kohelet (קהלת)
    21. Esther, Es—Ester (אסתר)
    22. Daniel, Dn—Daniel (דניאל)
    23. Ezra, Ea, includes Nehemiah, Ne—Ezra (עזרא), includes Nehemiah (נחמיה)
    24. Chronicles, includes First and Second, 1Ch–2Ch—Divrei ha-Yamim (דברי הימים), also called Divrei (דברי)
    Synoptic Gospels

    • Gospel According to Matthew, Mt
      Gospel According to Mark, Mk
      Gospel According to Luke, Lk
      Gospel According to John, Jn
      Acts of the Apostles, Ac (continues Luke)
      Epistle to the Romans, Ro
      First Epistle to the Corinthians, 1Co
      Second Epistle to the Corinthians, 2Co
      Epistle to the Galatians, Ga
      Epistle to the Ephesians, Ep
      Epistle to the Philippians, Pp
      Epistle to the Colossians, Cl
      First Epistle to the Thessalonians, 1Th
      Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, 2Th
      Pastoral Epistles

      • First Epistle to Timothy, 1Ti
        Second Epistle to Timothy, 2Ti
        Epistle to Titus, Tt
        Epistle to Philemon, Pm
        Epistle to the Hebrews, He
        Epistle of James, Jm
        First Epistle of Peter, 1Pe
        Second Epistle of Peter, 2Pe
        First Epistle of John, 1Jn
        Second Epistle of John, 2Jn
        Third Epistle of John, 3Jn
        Epistle of Jude, Jd
        Revelation, Re
        At some point in the past, humanity learned to depart from God's will and began to sin.
        Because no one is free from sin, people cannot deal with God directly, so God revealed Himself in ways people could understand.
        God called Abraham and his progeny to be the means for saving all of humanity.
        To this end, He gave the Law to Moses.
        The resulting nation of Israel went through cycles of sin and repentance, yet the prophets show an increasing understanding of the Law as a moral, not just a ceremonial, force.
        Jesus brought a perfect understanding of the Mosaic Law, that of love and salvation.
        By His death and resurrection, all who believe are saved and reconciled to God.
        The use of chapters and verses was not introduced until the Middle Ages and later. The system used in English was developed by Stephanus (Robert Estienne of Paris) (as noted below)
        Early manuscripts of the letters of Paul and other New Testament writings show no punctuation whatsoever. [1] The punctuation was added later by other editors, according to their own understanding of the text. (Punctuation can shape and change the meaning of a passage.)
        Orthodox (characterized by Eliezer Berkovitz and Norman Lamm): "Verbal Revelation: The Torah, including both the Written and Oral Traditions, consists of the exact words of God. He gave it all as one piece at Sinai."
        Conservative I (characterized by Isaac Lesser, Alexander Kohut, Abraham Joshua Heschel, and David Novak): "Continuous Revelation:God dictated His will at Sinai and other times. It was written down by human beings, however, and hence the diverse traditions in the Bible."
        Conservative II (characterized by Ben Zion Bokser, Robert Gordis, Max Routtenberg and Emil Fackenheim): "Continuous Revelation: Human beings wrote the Torah, but they were divinely inspired."
        Conservative III (characterized by Louis Jacobs, Seymour Seigel, Jacob Agus, David Lieber and Elliot Dorff): "Continuous Revelation: The Torah is the human record of the concounter between God and the People Israel at Sinai. Since it was written by human beings, it contains some laws and ideas which we find repugnant today."
        Conservative IV/Reconstructionist (characterized by Mordecai Kaplan, Ira Eisenstein and Harold Schulweis): "No Revelation: Human beings wrote the Torah. No claim for divinity of the product."
        Reform (characterized by the Movement's 1937 Guiding Principles): "Progressive revelation: The Torah is God's will written by human beings. As time goes on, we get to understand his will better and better (="progressive revelation").
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        Blue Letter Bible provides resources on a verse by verse basis, such as commentaries, definitions, concordance with Hebrew/Greek, related information and parallel bible on the one selected verse in KJV, NKJV, NLT, NIV, ESV, NASB, RSV, ASV and others.
        American Bible Society to search NASB, KJV, CEV, ASV and others.
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        Biblical sites in the Holy Land Holy Land Biblical sites review. BibleWalks.com
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        A Hebrew and English encyclopedia of everybody in the Jewish Bible.
        Topical References, Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedia
        Sermons for Today—Biblical exposition
        Anderson, Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Testament. ISBN 0-13-948399-3.
        Berlin, Adele, Marc Zvi Brettler and Michael Fishbane. The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.
        Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Guide to the Bible. New York, NY: Avenel Books, 1981. ISBN 0-517-34582-X.
        Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did they Come from? Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2003. ISBN 0-8028-0975-8.
        Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why New York, NY: HarperSanFrancisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-073817-0.
        Finkelstein, Israel and Silberman, Neil A. The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-684-86913-6.
        Geisler, Norman (editor). Inerrancy. Sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. Zondervan Publishing House, 1980, ISBN 0-310-39281-0.
        Head, Tom. The Absolute Beginner's Guide to the Bible. Indianapolis, IN: Que Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7897-3419-2.
        Hoffman, Joel M. In the Beginning. New York University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8147-3690-4.
        Lindsell, Harold. The Battle for the Bible. Zondervan Publishing House, 1978. ISBN 0-310-27681-0.
        Lienhard, Joseph T. The Bible, The Church, and Authority. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1995.
        Miller, John W. The Origins of the Bible: Rethinking Canon History Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8091-3522-1.
        Riches, John. The Bible: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-285343-0
        Taylor, Hawley O. "Mathematics and Prophecy." Modern Science and Christian Faith. Wheaton: Van Kampen, 1948, pp. 175–83.
        Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, s.vv. "Book of Ezekiel," p. 580 and "prophecy," p. 1410. Chicago: Moody Bible Press, 1986.


Multi-ethnic societies, in contrast to single ethnic societies, integrate different ethnic groups irrespective of differences in culture, race, and history under a common social identity larger than one "nation" in the conventional sense. All cities and most towns can be regarded as multi-ethnic societies, even ones where race hatred and ethnic intolerance is common.
Also, many nations that today are considered ethnically homogeneous, such as Japan, have their origins in a more or less violent melting or mixing process.
There is a distinction between a society, a nation, a people, and a state. See multi-national state for the specific political and military issues arising from such a state. There is much overlap however between the concerns of running a state, and finding a common identity as a nation.

Multi-ethnic History

All Nations in the Americas
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Iran ( different ethnic and religious groups)
New Zealand
South Africa
United Kingdom Historic multi-ethnic societies

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Papua New Guinea
Russian Federation
Sri Lanka
Vojvodina (in Serbia)
Almost all countries in Subsaharan Africa Preconditions for success
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multi-ethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced mixture or coexistence of ethnically different populations might be the reason for the outbreak of nationalistic and racistic tendencies which over the years can become so strong that they are able to destruct a multi-ethnic society.


Second Viennese School
The Second Viennese School is the term generally used in English-speaking countries to denote the group of composers that comprised Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils and close associates in early 20th century Vienna, where, with breaks, he lived and taught between 1903 and 1925. Their music was initially characterized by post-romantic expanded tonality and later, following Schoenberg's own evolution, a totally-chromatic expressionism without firm tonal centre (often referred to as atonality) and later still Schoenberg's serial twelve-note technique. This although Schoenberg's teaching (as his various published textbooks demonstrate) was highly traditional and conservative, and did not include discussion of his serial method.
The principal members of the school, besides Schoenberg, were Alban Berg and Anton Webern, who were among his first composition pupils. Both of them had already produced copious and talented music in a late-romantic idiom but felt they gained new direction and discipline from Schoenberg's teaching. Other pupils of this generation included Heinrich Jalowetz, Erwin Stein and Egon Wellesz, and somewhat later Eduard Steuermann, Hanns Eisler, Rudolf Kolisch, Karl Rankl, Josef Rufer and Viktor Ullmann. Though Berg and Webern both followed Schoenberg into total chromaticism and both adopted twelve-tone technique soon after he did, each in his own way, not all of these other pupils did so, or waited for a considerable time before following suit. Schoenberg's brother-in-law Alexander Zemlinsky is sometimes included as part of the Second Viennese School, though he was never Schoenberg's pupil and never renounced a traditional conception of tonality. Several yet later pupils, such as Winfried Zillig, the Catalan Roberto Gerhard, the Transylvanian Norbert von Hannenheim and the Greek Nikolaos Skalkottas, are sometimes covered by the term, though (apart from Gerhard) they never studied in Vienna but as part of Schoenberg's masterclass in Berlin. Membership of the 'School' is not generally extended to Schoenberg's many pupils in the USA from 1933, such as John Cage, Leon Kirchner and Gerald Strang, nor to many other composers who, at a greater remove, wrote compositions evocative of the 'Second Viennese' style, such as the celebrated Canadian pianist Glenn Gould. By extension, however, certain pupils of Schoenberg's pupils (such as Berg's pupil Hans Erich Apostel and Webern's pupils René Leibowitz, Leopold Spinner and Ludwig Zenk) are usually included in the roll-call.
Though the 'school' included highly distinct musical personalities (the styles of Berg and Webern are in fact very different from each other, and from Schoenberg, while Gerhard and Skalkottas were closely involved with the folk music of their respective countries) the impression of cohesiveness was enhanced by the literary efforts of some of its members. Wellesz wrote the first book on Schoenberg, who was also the subject of several Festschriften put together by his friends and pupils; Rufer and Spinner both wrote books on the technique of twelve-tone composition; and Leibowitz's influential study of Schoenberg, Berg and Webern, Schoenberg et son école, helped to establish the image of a 'school' in the period immediately after World War II in France and abroad. Several of those mentioned (eg Jalowetz, Rufer) were also influential as teachers, and others (eg Kolisch, Rankl, Stein, Steuermann, Zillig) as performers, in disseminating the ideals, ideas and approved repertoire of the group. Perhaps the culimination of the 'school' took place at Darmstadt almost immediately after WWII, at the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik, wherein Schoenberg - who was invited but too ill to travel - was ultimately usurped in musical ideology by the music of his pupil, Webern, as composers and performers from the Second Viennese School (eg Leibowitz, Adorno, Kolisch, Stadlen, Stuckenschmidt, Scherchen) converged with the new serialists (eg Boulez, Stockhausen, Maderna, Nono, et al.).
German musical literature refers to the grouping as the 'Wiener Schule' or 'Neue Wiener Schule'. The existence of a 'First Viennese School' is debatable. The term is often assumed to connote the great Vienna-based masters of the Classical style working in the late 18th and early 19th century, particularly Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert. However, Mozart and Schubert did not study with Haydn, and though Beethoven did for a time receive lessons from the older master, he was not a 'pupil' in the sense that Berg and Webern were pupils of Schoenberg.

numerous studies of the composers named
René Leibowitz, Schoenberg et son école (Paris, Editeur J B Janin, 1947) translated by Dika Newlin as Schoenberg and His School: The Contemporary Stage of the Language of Music (New York, Philosophical Library, 1949)


First Epistle of Peter
The First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. It has traditionally been held to have been written by Saint Peter the apostle during his time as bishop of Rome. The letter is addressed to various churches in Asia Minor suffering religious persecution.

1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Revelation Authorship and date
Most critical scholars are sceptical that the apostle Simon Peter, the fisherman on the Sea of Galilee, actually wrote the epistle, because of the urbane cultured style of the Greek and the lack of any personal detail suggesting contact with the historical Jesus of Nazareth. The letter contains about thirty-five references to the Hebrew Bible, all of which, however, come from the Septuagint translation, an unlikely source for historical Peter the apostle (albeit appropriate for an international audience). The Septuagint was a Greek translation created at Alexandria for the use of those Jews who could not easily read the Hebrew and Aramaic of the Tanakh. A historical Jew in Galilee would not have heard Scripture in this form. If the epistle is taken to be pseudepigraphal, the date is usually cited as between 70-90 by scholars like Raymond E. Brown and Bart D. Ehrman, while a small number of scholars argue for an even later date.


The Kid (1921 film)
The Kid is a 1921 Charlie Chaplin film. It featured Jackie Coogan as his adopted son and sidekick. It was a huge success, and was the second-highest grossing film in 1921, behind The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
The Kid is about a Tramp (Chaplin) that finds an abandoned baby in an alley and takes care of him. As the baby gets older, they are perfect together and they form little schemes to scam people. d The Kid is notable as being the first feature length comedy film to effectively combine comedy and drama, as one of the opening titles says: "A picture with a smile, and perhaps a tear..." The most famous and enduring sequence in the film is the Tramp's desperate rooftop pursuit of the welfare agents who have taken the child, and their emotional reunion. Audiences of the time were deeply affected by the film and the relationship of the Kid with the much-loved Tramp character, from whom they had not previously seen such emotional depth.
Chaplin and Coogan both give remarkable performances in The Kid. The film made Coogan, then a vaudeville performer, into the first major child star of the movies. Many Chaplin biographers have attributed the genuinely close and touching relationship portrayed in the film to have resulted from the death of Chaplin's firstborn infant son just before production began. The portrayal of poverty and the cruelty of welfare workers are also directly reminiscent of Chaplin's own London childhood. Several of the street scenes were filmed in Olvera Street, almost ten years before it was converted into a Mexican-themed tourist attraction. At the time Olvera was merely a nearly-forgotten, grimy alley, and was well suited to underscore the back-alley squalor prevalent in the film.
After production was completed in 1920, the film was caught up in the divorce actions of Chaplin's first wife Mildred Harris, who sought to attach Chaplin's assets. Chaplin and his associates smuggled the raw negative to Salt Lake City, Utah (reportedly packed in coffee cans) and edited the film in a hotel room there. Before release he negotiated for and received an enhanced financial deal for the film with his distributor, First National Corporation, based on the power of the final film. Chaplin edited and reissued the film in 1971, and he composed a new musical score (considered by many to be one of his finest).
Lita Grey, who portrays a tempting angel in the film, became Chaplin's second wife from 1924 to 1927. The elderly Chaplin and co-star Coogan met for the last time in 1972, during Chaplin's brief return to America for an Honorary Academy Award.

Cast and Credits

Charlie Chaplin ... Tramp
Edna Purviance ... Mother
Jackie Coogan ... The Kid
Tom Wilson ... Cop
Jack Coogan Sr... Pickpocket / Guest / Devil
Henry Bergman ... Empresario
Lita Grey ... Angel of Temptation
Written and Directed by Charles Chaplin
Photographed by Roland Totheroh


That Hamilton WomanThat Hamilton Woman
That Hamilton Woman, its original British title was simply Lady Hamilton, is a 1941 historical film drama, produced & directed by Alexander Korda, for Alexander Korda Films.
It tells the story of Emma Hamilton, who was mistress to Admiral Horatio Nelson with these roles played by Vivien Leigh and Laurence Olivier. Heather Angel also appear in the film in a minor part of a street girl. The story start at the end of Lady Hamilton's Life, in the slums of Calais, and shows her life by means of a flash back.
Stars Vivien Leigh and Laurence Olivier were newlyweds at the time of filming and were considered a "dream couple".

In Horatio Nelson's (Laurence Olivier) opening scene, he informs Lord Hamilton that he has received orders from Lord Admiral Hood, a role that Olivier would play 43 years later, in The Bounty
It was stated to be the favorite film of Sir Winston Churchill
Made in wartime, Napoleon was equated to Hitler and Nelson to 'Britain fighting on alone' in WWII.


Coordinates: 50°48′54″N 0°03′54″W / 50.815, -0.065
Rottingdean is a coastal village next to the town of Brighton and technically within the city of Brighton and Hove, in East Sussex, on the south coast of England. It borders the villages of Ovingdean and Woodingdean, and has a historic centre, often the subject of picture postcards.

Rottingdean has approximately 2,500 inhabitants. For most of its history it was a farming community, but from the late 18th century it attracted leisured visitors wanting a genteel alternative to raffish Brighton, among them some names famous in English cultural life. Some, in the late 19th century, notably the painter Sir Edward Burne-Jones and his nephew Rudyard Kipling, made it their home. Kipling's old house adjacent to Kipling Gardens is still standing and the former house of the painter Sir William Nicholson is currently open to the public as a library and museum. When farming collapsed in the 1920s, much of the farmland became available for building, and Rottingdean increased significantly in population, especially in the area known as Saltdean. A large number of smallholdings appeared in the detached part of the parish called Woodingdean.
Rottingdean is also notable for the black wooden windmill on the hill on its western side. Nicholson made a woodcut that was used as the logo of the publisher William Heinemann; this is often said to have been a depiction of Rottingdean mill, but a glance at both will show that this is untrue. The hill is a local nature reserve. It was also well known for sport, having a cricket club founded in 1758 and having been a centre of fox hunting especially in the second half of the 19th century.

The parish church
Most of these well-known people were not local, and had settled in or retired to Rottingdean. The village also had home-grown talent of significance, notably the Copper Family who maintained a long tradition of English folk song, performing for the collector Kate Lee as early as 1892. Its best-known member was Bob Copper (1915-2004), also known as a writer.
The first garage for motor cars was run by Charles Thomas, a former pupil of York Place School in Brighton, in the early years of the 20th century. In about 1905 Charles met the American financier Charles Glidden, and the two men embarked together on a round trip of the world, visiting many countries and cities - this was the start of the famous Glidden Tour. It is thought that Charles Thomas also worked on a machine to achieve perpetual motion, and kept one running in his basement for many months.
Most histories of Rottingdean mention that its inhabitants were involved in smuggling when that was especially profitable, mainly in the 18th century. It is impossible to verify all the local stories, or believe all the claims about secret passages under the village, but it is persistently rumoured that the 18th-century vicar Dr Thomas Hooker was deeply implicated. The other face of Hooker was his devotion to education. He opened schools in the village both for the well-off (which developed eventually into the present St Aubyn's preparatory school) and for the local children.

Rottingdean Civil status and former extent of the area

Carder, Tim (1991) The encyclopaedia of Brighton. Lewes: East Sussex County Council (1991).
Coates, Richard (forthcoming) A history of Rottingdean and Ovingdean through their place-names. Nottingham: English Place-Name Society.
Copper, Bob (1976) Early to rise. London: Heinemann (1976).
Heater, Derek (1993) The remarkable history of Rottingdean. Brighton: Dyke Publications.
Rottingdean Preservation Society annual reports and unpublished archives.


Climax (biology)
The term climax community, also described as a climatic climax community, is a largely obsolete

Climax (biology) Continuing usage of "climax"


Bread - Pasta - Cheese - RiceCuisine of Norway Sauces - Soups - Desserts Herbs and spices Other ingredients
Norwegian cuisine is in its traditional form largely based on the raw materials readily available in a country dominated by mountains, wilderness and the sea. Hence, it differs in many respects from its continental counterparts with a stronger focus on game and fish.
Modern Norwegian cuisine, although still strongly influenced by its traditional background, now bears the marks of globalization: Pastas, pizzas and the like are as common as meatballs and cod as staple foods, and urban restaurants sport the same selection you would expect to find in any western european city.

Cuisine of Norway Meat and game
Fruits and berries mature slowly in the cold climate. This makes for a tendency to smaller volume with a more intense taste. Strawberries, blueberries, lingonberries, raspberries and apples are popular and are part of a variety of desserts, and cherries in the parts of the country where those are grown. The wild growing cloudberry is regarded as a delicacy. A typical Norwegian dessert on special occasions is cloudberries with whipped or plain cream.
German and Nordic-style cakes and pastries, such as sponge cakes and Danish pastry (known as "wienerbrød", literal translation: "Viennese bread") share the table with sweet breads - "kaffebrød" (literally: "coffee bread", named for its accompaniment, not ingredients), waffles and biscuits. Cardamom is a common flavouring.
Coffee is an extremely common part of social life, enjoyed both before and after dinner, with bread, desserts and liquor. The average Norwegian consumes 160 litres of coffee p.a, or ten kilogrammes per person. 80% of the population drinks coffee. As in the rest of the west, recent years have seen a shift from coffee made by boiling ground beans to Italian-style coffee bars, tended by professional baristas.

Dairy products
Both industrial and small-scale brewing have long traditions in Norway. Restrictive alcohol policies have encouraged a rich community of brewers, and a colourful variety of beverages both legal and illegal. The most popular industrial beers are usually pilsners and red beers (bayer), while traditional beer is much richer, with a high alcohol and malt content. The ancient practice of brewing Juleøl (yule beer) persists even today, and imitations of these are available before Christmas, in shops and, for the more potent versions, at state monopoly outlets. Cider brewing has faced tough barriers to commercial production due to alcohol regulations, and the famous honey wine, mjød (mead), is mostly a drink for connoisseurs and practitioners of the native religion. The climate has not been hospitable to grapes for millenia, and wines and more potent drinks are available only from the wine monopolies.
Distilled beverages include akevitt, a yellow-tinged liquor spiced with caraway seeds, also known as akvavit or other variations on the latin aqua vitae - water of life. The Norwegian "linie" style is distinctive for its maturing process, crossing the equator in sherry casks stored the hull of a ship, giving it more taste and character than the rawer styles of other Scandinavian akevitter. Norway also produces some vodkas, bottled water and fruit juices.


Connecticut Land Company
The Connecticut Land Company was formed in the late eighteenth century to survey and encourage settlement in the Connecticut Western Reserve, part of the Old Northwest Territory. The Western Reserve is located in Northeast Ohio with its hub being Cleveland.
Connecticut Land Company


The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century.

Geothermal power
Hydro power
Solar power
Tidal power
Wave power
Wind power Realisation of the potential

Main article: Wind power in Scotland Wind power
Further information: Wave power
Various systems are under development at present aimed at harnessing the enormous potential available for wave power off Scotland's coasts. Ocean Power Delivery are an Edinburgh-based company whose Pelamis system has been tested off Orkney and Portugal. These devices are 150 metres (492 ft) long, 3.5 metres (11.5 ft) diameter floating tubes which capture the mechanical action of the waves. Future wave farm projects could involve an arrangement of interlinked 750 kW machines connected to shore by a subsea transmission cable.

Wave power
Further information: Tidal power
Unlike wind and wave, tidal power is an inherently predictable source. However the technology is in its infancy and numerous devices are in the prototype stages. Today we know that a tall tubular tower with three blades attached to it is the typical profile of a wind turbine, but twenty-five years ago there were a wide variety of different systems being tested.

Tidal power
Further information: Hydro power
Scotland has 85% of the UK's hydro-electric energy resource,

Hydro-electric power
Further information: Biofuels

Various biodiesel schemes exist at present, and as with most renewables, interest is growing in the subject. Westray Development Trust operate a biodiesel vehicle fueled by the residual vegetable oils from the Orkney archipelago fish and chip outlets.

Anaerobic digestion and landfill gas
Further information: Biomass
Wood fuel almost certainly exceeds hydroelectric and wind as the largest source of renewable energy at present. Scotland's forests, which currently make up 60% of the UK resource base,

Solid biomass
The Energy Savings Trust estimate that micro-generation could provide 30–40% of the UK's electricity demand by 2050

Micro systems
Further information: Solar power
Despite Scotland's relatively low level of sunshine hours, solar panels can work effectively as they are capable of producing hot water even in cloudy weather. which in the Scottish context is the approximate equivalent of 0.07 GW or less of installed capacity.

Solar energy
Further information: Geothermal power
Geothermal energy is obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself. Most systems in Scotland provide heating through a ground source heat pump which brings energy to the surface via shallow pipe works. An example is the Glenalmond Street project in Shettleston, which uses a combination of solar and geothermal energy to heat 16 houses. Water in a coal mine 100 metres (328 ft) below ground level is heated by geothermal energy and maintained at a temperature of about 12 °C (54 °F) throughout the year. The warmed water is raised and passed through a heat pump, boosting the temperature to 55 °C (131 °F), and is then distributed to the houses providing heating to radiators.

Geothermal energy
It is clear that if carbon emissions are to be reduced, a combination of increased production from renewables and decreased consumption of energy in general and fossil fuels in particular will be required. A variety of other options exist, most of which may affect development of renewable technologies even if they are not means of producing energy from renewable sources themselves.

Other means of reducing carbon emissions
Various other ideas for renewable energy in the early stages of development, such as ocean thermal energy conversion, deep lake water cooling, and blue energy, have received little attention in Scotland, presumably because the potential is so significant for less speculative technologies.

Other renewable options
Carbon offsetting involves individuals or organisations compensating for their use of fossil fuels by making payments to projects that aim to neutralise the effect of these carbon emissions. Although the idea has become fashionable, the theory has received serious criticism of late. The weaknesses of the approach include uncertainty as to whether the planting might have occurred anyway and who, in the future, will ensure permanence. However, there is likely to be a greater level of credibility inherent in a nearby and visible scheme than in a far-distant one.

Carbon offsetting
The following technologies are means of reducing the effect of carbon emissions and form an important aspect of the energy debate in Scotland and are included here for completeness. Their effect is likely to influence the future direction of commercial renewable energy, but they are not renewable forms of energy production themselves.
Carbon sequestration: Also known as carbon capture and storage, this technology involves the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is a by-product of industrial processes through its injection into oil fields. It is not a form of renewable energy production, but it may be a way to significantly reduce the effect of fossil fuels whilst renewables are commercialised. It may also be an intermediate step towards a 'hydrogen economy' (see below), which could either enable further renewable development or conceivably out-compete it. The technology has been successfully pioneered in Norway

Challenges and opportunities offered by non-renewables
Although hydrogen offers significant potential as an alternative to hydrocarbons as a carrier of energy, neither hydrogen itself nor the associated fuel cell technologies are sources of energy in themselves. Nevertheless, the combination of renewable technologies and hydrogen is of considerable interest to those seeking alternatives to fossil fuels.

A significant feature of Scotland's renewable potential is that the resources are largely distant from the main centres of population. This is by no means coincidental. The power of wind, wave and tide on the north and west coasts and for hydro in the mountains makes for dramatic scenery, but sometimes harsh living conditions. W. H. Murray described the Hebrides as "the Isles on the Edge of the Sea where men are welcome—if they are hard in body and in spirit tenacious."

Local vs national concerns
Growing national concerns regarding 'Peak Oil' and climate change have driven the subject of renewable energy high up the political agenda. Various public bodies and public-private partnerships have been created to develop the potential. The Scottish Renewables Forum is an important intermediary organisation for the industry, hosting the annual Green Energy Awards. The Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company (HICEC) provides advice, grant funding and finance for renewable energy projects developed by community groups in the north and west of Scotland. Areg is a public-private partnership created to identify and promote renewable energy opportunities for businesses in the north-east.

Renewable energy in Scotland Promotion of renewables
New data appears on a regular basis and milestones in 2007 include the following.
In February the commissioning of the Braes of Doune wind farm took the UK renewables installed capacity up to 2GW.

Recent events
Table notes
a. The above figures assume 12% by 2020.
Blank entries mean no data is available. In the cases of the current capacity of biomass, biodiesel and geothermal these will have been very small.

See also

Monbiot, George (2006) Heat: How to Stop the Planet Burning. London. Allen Lane.
RSPB Scotland, WWF Scotland and FOE Scotland (February 2006) The Power of Scotland: Cutting Carbon with Scotland's Renewable Energy. RSPB et al.
Scottish Executive (2005) Choosing Our Future: Scotland's Sustainable Development Strategy. Edinburgh.
Scottish Renewables Forum. Market and Planning Reports (various).
The Role of Nuclear Power in a Low Carbon Economy. (2006) Sustainable Development Commission. London.
Royal Society of Edinburgh (June 2006) Inquiry into Energy Issues for Scotland. Final Report. Edinburgh. RSE.


People is a weekly American magazine of celebrity and human interest stories, published by Time Inc. As of 2006, it has a circulation of 3.75 million and revenue expected to top $1.5 billion.

People (magazine) History
In a July 2006 Variety article, Janice Min, Us Weekly editor-in-chief, blamed People for the increase in cost to publishers of celebrity photos:
"They are among the biggest spenders of celebrity photos in the industry....One of the first things they ever did, that led to the jacking up of photo prices, was to pay $75,000 to buy pictures of Jennifer Lopez reading Us magazine, so Us Weekly couldn't buy them.
"That was the watershed moment that kicked off high photo prices in my mind. I had never seen anything like it. But they saw a competitor come along, and responded. It was a business move, and probably a smart one."

Sexiest Man Alive

1. Sept. 11th 2001: The Day that Shook America (Sept. 24, 2001 Issue)
2. Goodbye, Diana (Sept. 22, 1997 Issue)
3. JFK Jr.- Charmed Life, Tragic Death (Aug. 2, 1999 Issue)


Hindi Wikipedia
The Hindi Wikipedia (Hindi: विकिपीडिया wikipīḍiyā) is the Hindi language edition of Wikipedia, hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. Started in July 2003, the Hindi Wikipedia currently has over 12,000 legitimate content articles and nearly 2,000 registered editors (as of July 18, 2007). It was created primarily to cater to the needs of Hindi speaking people, especially from India. As the Hindi Wikipedia uses Indic script (Devanagari), it requires support for complex text rendering.


Santa Maria, Texas
Santa Maria is a census-designated place (CDP) in Cameron County, Texas, United States. The population was 846 at the 2000 census.

Santa Maria is served by the Santa Maria Independent School District.
In addition, South Texas Independent School District operates magnet schools that serve the community.


Differences from commercial publishers
Vanity publishers typically offer contracts that strongly favor the publisher, charging high fees while providing low-quality books. They often sell worthless add-on services related to editing and marketing, and are frequently charged with outright scams.
A self-publisher is an author who also undertakes the functions of a publisher for his or her own book. The classic "self-publisher" writes, edits, markets and promotes the book themselves, relying on a printer only for actual printing and binding. More recently, companies have offered their services to act as a sort of agent between the writer and a small printing operation. In these cases, the distinction between self-publishing and vanity publishing is less obvious than it once was.
The most recent incarnations of vanity presses make use of print on demand technologies based on modern digital printing. These companies are often able to offer their services with little or no upfront cost to the author, but they are still considered vanity presses by many writers advocates. Vanity presses earn their money, not from sales of books to readers like other publishers, but from sales of books to the authors. The author receives the shipment of books and may attempt to resell them through whatever channels are available.

Business model
Writers considering self-publishing often also consider directly hiring a printer. According to self-publisher and poet Peter Finch, vanity presses charge higher premiums and create a risk that an author who has published with a vanity press will have more difficulty working with a respectable publisher in the future.
Some vanity presses using print on demand technology act as printers as well as sellers of support services for authors interested in self-publishing. Reputable firms of this type are typically marked by clear contract terms, lack of excessive fees, retail prices comparable to those from commercial printers, lack of pressure to purchase "extra" services, contracts which do not claim exclusive rights to the work being published (though one would be hard pressed to find a legitimate publisher willing to put out a competing edition, making non-exclusivity meaningless), and honest indications of what services they will and won't provide, and what results the author may reasonably expect. However, the distinction between the worst of these firms and vanity presses is essentially trivial, though a source of great confusion as the low fees have attracted tens of thousands of authors who wish to avoid the stigma of vanity publishing while doing just that.

Alternatives to vanity publishing
The typical library avoids stocking self-published books, since most vanity publications have not gone through selection, revision, copyediting and other critical steps which are normal for commercial for-profit publishers. Most libraries will not accept such vanity publications, even when they are offered free of charge, since even then there are costs involved: all library books have to be described in a catalogue, and require classification stickers and other elements as well as valuable shelf space. In any case, it is usual for books to be chosen for a library by the application of a collection development policy designed to meet the needs of a particular user community, and vanity publications only rarely meet those needs.
On the rare occasions when libraries accept the product of a vanity press, they usually require the donor to sign a form giving to the library the right to do what it pleases with the item. The item is sometimes then disposed of in a yearly book sale or by some other process for the distribution of unwanted items.
Exceptions include local histories, which are of specialized interest enough to be uninteresting to commercial publishers but which are sought out by libraries.
Many libraries and reviewers do not clearly distinguish between vanity publications and self-publications, and are apt to decline or resist any book that does not come from a commercial press. Indeed in some cases any book produced using POD technology encounters such resistance, even if it is from a small commercial publisher.

It should be noted that in the nineteenth and early twentieth century it was common for legitimate authors, if they could afford to, to pay the costs of publishing their books. Such writers could expect more control of their work, greater profits, or both. Self-publishing was not judged negatively as it has been more recently. Among the authors taking this route to publication was Lewis Carroll, who paid the expenses of publishing Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and most of his subsequent work. Such authors as Mark Twain, Zane Grey, Upton Sinclair, Carl Sandburg, Edgar Rice Burroughs, George Bernard Shaw, Edgar Allan Poe, Rudyard Kipling, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, and Anais Nin also resorted to self-publication for some or all of their works. It is worth noting, however, that despite the well known names on this list, not all of them were successful in their publishing ventures. Mark Twain's, for example, led to bankruptcy.

Umberto Eco's novel Foucault's Pendulum discusses the inside workings of a vanity press operated as a side operation of a more orthodox publisher, to pump out otherwise unpublishable personal musings on the occult. The 'main' publisher is run by a Signor Garamond, named for a renowned sixteenth century printer, while the vanity press is called 'Manutius', the name of another famous sixteenth century printer. Elaine Viets's novel Murder Between the Covers involves a self-published author attempting to set up a bookstore signing. The hero of Jonathan Coe's novel What a Carve-Up is commissioned over a long period to write a book by an otherwise vanity publisher. The company is satirized at some length. One of the substories of David Mitchell's 2004 novel Cloud Atlas is about Timothy Cavendish, a vanity press publisher. In Martin Amis's The Information, unsuccessful novelist Richard Tull works part-time at a vanity press, work he finds soul-destroying but (relatively) lucrative.

Vanity press Vanity presses in fiction
The following businesses have been described as using a vanity press or similar business model by independent sources:

American Biographical Institute See also