WOI-TV is the ABC affiliate in Des Moines, Iowa. It is licensed to Ames, with studios in West Des Moines. It transmits from the WOI-Tower near Alleman, Iowa.

WOI-Tower Personalities and programming
The WOI-Tower (also called NYT Broadcast Holdings Tower) is a 609.6 meter (2,000 feet) high guy-wired mast located in Alleman, Iowa, north of the Des Moines urban area, at 41°48′33″N, 93°36′54″W. It carries not only the signals of television stations WOI-TV (channel 5), but also WHO-TV (channel 13), and KDIN (channel 11) as well as radio stations WOI-FM (90.1) and KDRB (100.3). The structure is one of the very few masts to have elevators.
The WOI-Tower was completed in 1972 and is property of Local TV, the owner of WHO-TV.


Foundation and early history
It received a Royal Charter in 1736, and in 1741 moved to a new William Adam-designed facility with 228 beds in High School Yards, near Infirmary Street. In 1832, a surgical hospital was added. The surgical hospital was rebuilt in 1853. The Infirmary had public baths attached later.
In 1879, the infirmary moved to a new location, then in the fresher air of the edge of the city. The site, on Lauriston Place, had been occupied by George Watson's Hospital (a school, known then as a hospital). The school moved a short distance away to the former Merchant Maiden Hospital (another school) in Archibald Place. The original school building, by the same William Adam as the earlier infirmary, was incorporated into the new David Bryce-designed infirmary buildings and the chapel remained in use for the entirety of the infirmary's occupation of the site.
The earlier Infirmary Street buildings were demolished in 1884, replaced with public swimming baths and a school. Part of the colonnade of the original building may still be seen in a monument outside the city's Dreghorn Barracks. The original surgical theatre, which was on the roof of the 1741 building, was re-erected in the garden of a South Side villa. The surgical hospital of 1832/1853 later accommodated the Geography Department of the University of Edinburgh, and other university departments, including Natural Philosophy (now Physics), filled up the High School Yards site.
In the 1920s the hospital required to expand, and once again George Watson's College was asked to move. An arrangement was reached to acquire the school's site, with the school to remain there until new premises could be built elsewhere. By 1932 the school's new premises in Colinton Road were ready, and the old Archibald Place building was demolished to make way for the Simpson Memorial Pavilion, used primarily as a maternity wing.
In 1948, the infirmary was incorporated into the National Health Service (NHS). Over the years it has maintained close ties to the University of Edinburgh.

Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh The present site
The Edinburgh Royal Infirmary has often been described in works of fiction, biography and history, and depicted from both sides of the blanket. A recent example is the series of mainly humorous novels by Colin Douglas, which cover the postwar era up to the 1980s. The first of these was filmed for BBC television in 1986.


Polish Crown

For alternative meaning of the term see: Polish Crown Jewels
Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name, used in the times of Kingdom of Poland until the end of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795, for the territories under Polish direct administration, distinguishing them from federated territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy.
Before the 1569 Union of Lublin, territories of the Crown can be understood as the territories of Poland proper, inhabited by Poles and under Polish administration. However after the Union of Lublin, most of the present-day Ukraine (which had a negligible Polish population) and was until then controlled by Lithuania, passed under Polish administration, becoming the territory of the Polish Crown as well.
One of the contemporary terms for Poles was the term koroniarz (plural: koroniarze), derived from the term Korona.
Depending on context, this term can also refer to The Crown, the term used to separate the government authority and property of the government from the personal influence and private assets held by the current monarch of the Commonwealth. In the Commonwealth, that often meant to distinguish between people loyal to the elected king (royalists) and people loyal to powerful magnates.

Voivodeships of Greater Poland

Poznań Voivodeship (województwo poznańskie, Poznań)
Kalisz Voivodeship (województwo kaliskie, Kalisz)
Gniezno Voivodeship (województwo gnieźnieńskie, Gniezno) from 1768
Sieradz Voivodeship (województwo sieradzkie, Sieradz)
Łęczyca Voivodeship (województwo łęczyckie, Łęczyca)
Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship (województwo brzesko-kujawskie, Brześć Kujawski)
Inowrocław Voivodeship (województwo inowrocławskie, Inowrocław)
Chełmno Voivodeship (województwo chełmińskie, Chełmno)
Malbork Voivodeship (województwo malborskie, Malbork)
Pomeranian Voivodeship (województwo pomorskie, Gdańsk)
Duchy of Warmia (Księstwo Warmińskie, Lidzbark Warmiński)
Duchy of Prussia (Księstwo Pruskie, Lidzbark Warmiński)
Płock Voivodeship (województwo płockie, Płock)
Rawa Voivodeship (województwo rawskie, Rawa Mazowiecka)
Mazovian Voivodeship (województwo mazowieckie, Warsaw)


The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. Potatoes are the world's most widely grown tuber crop, and the fourth largest food crop in terms of fresh produce — after rice, wheat, and maize ('corn'). The potato was domesticated in southern Peru In pre-Colombian times they were also widely cultivated on Chiloé Island, in Chile. Potatoes spread from South America to Spain and from there to the rest of the world after European colonization in the late 1400s and early 1500s. They soon became an important field crop.

For instance, the potato was a staple food for sailors in Spanish ships. After the wreck of the Spanish Armada in 1588, English coastal villagers rescued potatoes and planted them.
In 1845, a fungal disease, Phytophthora infestans, also known as late blight, spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland, resulting in the Great Irish Famine. Unfortunately the local population had begun to rely on the potato as a staple food and when crops failed, year after year, huge numbers of people died. Others emigrated, largely to the United States, blaming the British government for the situation.
The potato is also strongly associated with Idaho, Maine, Prince Edward Island, Ireland, Jersey and Russia because of its large role in the agricultural economy and/or history of these regions. Botanical description
The English word potato comes from Spanish patata, ultimately from Nahuatl potatl, potentially its first name.
Bulgarian картоф, as well as Russian картофель and German Kartoffel, derive from the Italian word tartufoli, which was given to potato because of its similarity to truffles (Italian: tartufo).
Another common name is "ground apple": pomme de terre in French, aardappel in Dutch, תפוח אדמה in Hebrew (often written just as פוד), and Erdapfel in Austrian German. In 16th century French, pomme meant "fruit", thus pomme de terre meant "ground fruit" and was probably literally loan translated to other languages when potatoes were introduced. In Polish potato is called just ziemniaki, and in Slovak zemiak, from the word for "ground".
Different names for the potato developed in China's various regions, the most widely used names in standard Chinese today are "horse-bell yam" (马铃薯 - mǎlíngshǔ), "earth bean" (土豆 - tǔdòu), and "foreign taro" (洋芋 - yángyù).

Potato Etymology
There is general agreement between contemporary botanists that the potato originated in the Andes, all the way from Colombia to northern Argentina, but with a concentration of genetic diversity, both in the form of cultivated and wild species, in the area of modern day Peru. The potatoes cultivated in the Andes are not all the same species. The major species is Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes,) then there are four diploid species (with 24 chromosomes) by the names of Solanum stenotomum, Solanum phureja, Solanum goniocalyx and Solanum ajanhuiri. There are two triploid species (with 36 chromosomes) Solanum chaucha and Solanum juzepczukii, and finally, there is one pentaploid cultivated species (with 60 chromosomes) called Solanum curtilobum.
Andean potatoes are adapted to short day conditions and Chilean potatoes to long day conditions. There is sufficient evidence that the tetraploid Andean short day potato was the one that first arrived in Southern Spain in about 1565, from where it spread to the rest of Europe, adapting to European long day conditions in a period of about two hundred years. In order to botanically distinguish potatoes adapted to short days from those thriving and producing tubers under long day conditions, Solanum tuberosum has been split into two subspecies by present-day taxonomists, Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum (adapted to long days) and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena (adapted to short days.) Apart from their different photoperiodic reaction, these two subspecies are also distinct morphologically, though the differences are apparent only to an experienced taxonomist. Russian taxonomists did, in fact, create two different species in the early part of the 20th century, Solanum tuberosum and Solanum andigenum, to mark the same distinction. The process of adaptation to long days has happened once before as the potato moved from the Andes to the south of the continent. This was before the Europeans arrived in South America. Chile still has a large amount of valuable potato germplasm adapted to long days.
Historical and genetic evidence suggests that the potato reached India not very much later than Europe, probably taken there by the Portuguese. In isolated areas in the Himalayas of India and Nepal, so called "desi" potatoes are still grown, and they are very similar to the short day adapted modern Andean potato, Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena.
There are about five thousand potato varieties world wide. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia. They belong to eight or nine species, depending on the taxonomic school. Apart from the five thousand cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated species, which has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. The list of varieties found in European, North American or Asian markets is very limited, and these varieties are all of the same species, Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum.
These potatoes are often referred to as "Irish" potatoes in the English speaking world because of their association with the Great Irish Famine, which began in 1845 and lasted for six years. The Irish peasant population had become highly dependent on the potato because of the relatively large amount of food that could be produced on fairly small holdings. Immigrant farmers from the Palatinate region of Germany brought their own crops, such as turnips, to Western Ireland. They were much less dependent on the potato than their native Irish neighbors and were largely spared the effects of the potato famine. The disease killing the Irish potato crop was the late blight fungus Phytophtora infestans. The long lasting after effects of this famine are well known and well documented.
What is less well known is the role of the British during the potato famine. Rich aristocratic British landowners continued to export grain from Ireland to other parts of the world even as tens of thousands of Irish men, women and children were starving to death. Fortunately, this was not the practice of all of them, there were some British owned estates where not one Irish peasant starved during the famine. Authors like Salaman have written in detail about that situation, which has also been recognized by contemporary British historians.
Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources. Still, one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, is found as far north as Texas and used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species attacking cultivated potatoes. A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species are found that have been used extensively in modern breeding, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum, as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease.
The potato became an important staple crop in northern Europe as the climate changed due to the Little Ice Age, when traditional crops in this region did not produce as reliably as before. At times when and where most other crops would fail, potatoes could still typically be relied upon to contribute adequately to food supplies during the colder years. The potato was not popular in France during this time, and it is believed that some of the infamous famines could have been lessened if French farmers had adopted the potato. Today, the potato forms an important part of the traditional cuisine of the British Isles, northern Europe, central Europe and eastern Europe. As of 2007, Germany has a higher consumption of potato per capita than any other country on earth.

Food value
Potatoes are prepared in many ways: skin-on or peeled, whole or cut up, with seasonings or without. The only requirement involves cooking to break down the starch. Most potato dishes are served hot, but some are first cooked then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips/crisps.
Common dishes are: mashed potatoes, which are first boiled (usually peeled), and then mashed with milk and butter; whole baked potatoes; boiled or steamed potatoes; French-fried potatoes or chips; cut into cubes and roasted; scalloped, diced, or sliced and fried (home fries); grated into small thin strips and fried (hash browns); grated and formed into dumplings, Rösti or potato pancakes. Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided that they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping—this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato. Potato chunks also commonly appear as a stew ingredient.

General methods
Peruvian Cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3,000 varieties of this tuber are grown there. Some of the more famous dishes include Papa a la huancaina, Papa rellena, Ocopa, Carapulcra, Causa and Cau Cau among many others.
Mashed potatoes form a major component of several traditional dishes from the British Isles such as shepherd's pie, bubble and squeak, champ and the 'mashit tatties' (Scots language) which accompany haggis. They are also often sautéed to accompany a meal.
Colcannon is a traditional Irish dish involving mashed potato combined with shredded cabbage and onion.
Potatoes are very popular in continental Europe as well. In Italy, they serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the pseudo-French vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. In western Norway, komle is popular.
In the United States, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops, and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments. One popular favorite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese (or sour cream and chives) on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" (a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel) have great popularity. Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, plus butter & salt for taste. A regional dish of Central New York, salt potatoes are bite-sized new potatoes boiled in water saturated with salt then served with melted butter.
In Northern Europe, especially Denmark, Sweden and Finland, newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy. Boiled whole and served with dill, these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed together with Baltic herring.
A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or Papas arrugadas.
A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée. The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato, salted, sometimes filled with pork in the center, and boiled. The result is a moist ball about the size of a baseball. It is commonly eaten with salt and pepper or brown sugar. It is believed to have originated from the German Klöße, prepared by early German settlers who lived among the Acadians.
Poutine, by contrast, is a hearty serving of french fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy. Tracing its origins to Quebec in the 1950s, it has become popular across Canada and can usually be found where Canadians gather abroad.

Regional dishes
Potatoes contain glycoalkaloids, toxic compounds, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Cooking at high temperatures (over 170 °C or 340 °F) partly destroys these. The concentration of glycoalkaloid in wild potatoes suffices to produce toxic effects in humans. Glycoalkaloids occur in the greatest concentrations just underneath the skin of the tuber, and they increase with age and exposure to light. Glycoalkaloids may cause headaches, diarrhea, cramps and in severe cases coma and death; however, poisoning from potatoes occurs very rarely. Light exposure also causes greening, thus giving a visual clue as to areas of the tuber that may have become more toxic; however, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. Some varieties of potato contain greater glycoalkaloid concentrations than others; breeders developing new varieties test for this, and sometimes have to discard an otherwise promising cultivar.
Breeders try to keep solanine levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). However, when these commercial varieties turn green, even they can approach concentrations of solanine of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw). In normal potatoes though, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3.5% of the breeders' maximum, with 7–187 mg/kg being found. The National Toxicology Program suggests that the average American consumes at most 12.5 mg/person/day of solanine from potatoes (note that the toxic dose is actually several times this, depending on body weight). Dr. Douglas L. Holt, the State Extension Specialist for Food Safety at the University of Missouri - Columbia, notes that no reported cases of potato-source solanine poisoning have occurred in the U.S. in the last 50 years and most cases involved eating green potatoes or drinking potato-leaf tea.
Solanine is also found in other plants, mainly in the mostly-deadly nightshade family, which includes a minority of edible plants including the potato and the tomato, and other typically more dangerous plants like tobacco. This poison affects the nervous system causing weakness and confusion.

Toxic compounds in potatoes

List of poisonous plants
Sites with information about the safety of green potatoes:

  • http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_055b.html
    http://www.promolux.com/english/retail_produce_greening.html See also
    Potatoes are generally grown from the eyes of another potato and not from seed. Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. Commercial growers plant potatoes as a row crop using seed tubers, young plants or microtubers and may mound the entire row.
    At harvest time, gardeners generally dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e. a spading fork, or a potato hook which is similar to the graip, except the tines are at a 90 degree angle to the handle as is the blade of a hoe. In larger plots, the plow can serve as the most expeditious implement for unearthing potatoes. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters which scoop up the plant and the surrounding earth. This is transported up an apron chain consisting of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. Different designs employ different systems at this point. The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system or "Flying Willard" to separate the potatoes from the plant. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage.
    Correct potato husbandry is an arduous task in the best of circumstances. Good ground preparation, harrowing, plowing, and rolling are always needed, along with a little grace from the weather and a good source of water. Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and rolling, are desirable before planting. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. Potatoes are the most fruitful of the root crops, but much care and consideration is needed to keep them satisfied and fruitful.
    It is important to harvest potatoes before heavy frosts begin, since field frost damages potatoes in the ground, and even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting which can quickly ruin a large stored crop.
    Seed potato crops are 'rogued' in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop.

    Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. It is crucial that the storage area is dark, well ventilated and for long-term storage maintained at temperatures near 40°F (4°C). For short-term storage prior to cooking, temperatures of about 45-50°F (7-10°C) are preferred.

    FAO reports that China accounted for at least one-fourth of the global output followed by Russia and India in 2005.

    Production trends
    Potatoes have been bred into many standard or well-known varieties, each of which have particular agricultural or culinary attributes. Varieties are generally categorized into a few main groups, such as Russets, Reds, Whites, Yellows (aka Yukons), and Purples based on common characteristics. Popular varieties found in markets may include:
    Genetic research on the potato has resulted in at least one genetically-modified variety, the New Leaf, owned by Monsanto corporation.
    Potatoes of all varieties are generally cured after harvest to thicken the skin. Prior to curing, the skin is very thin and delicate. These potatoes are sometimes sold as "New Potatoes" and are particularly flavorful. New potatoes are often harvested by the home gardener or farmer by "grabbling", i.e. pulling out the young tubers by hand while leaving the plant in place. In additions, markets may sometimes present various thin-skinned potato varieties as "new potatoes".

    Pink Eye
    Pink Fir Apple
    Russet Burbank
    Spunta Varieties
    A major pest of potato plants is the Colorado potato beetle.
    The potato root nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended.
    Other pests include Aphids, both the Green Peach Aphid and the Potato Aphid. Beetleafhoppers, Thrips, and Mites are also very common potato insect pests.


    Main article: List of potato diseases Diseases
    The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. Potatoes are represented anthromorphically as well as naturally.

    Potatoes and Art
    Maine companies are exploring the possibilities of using waste potatoes to obtain polylactic acid for use in plastic products.

    See also

    Larry Zuckerman (1999). Potato, The: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World. Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 0-86547-578-4.
    Lang, James (2001). Notes of a Potato Watcher, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
    Salaman, Redcliffe N. (1989). The History and Social Influence of the Potato, Cambridge University Press (originally published in 1949; reprinted 1985 with new introduction and corrections by J.G. Hawkes).
    Hawkes, J.G. (1990). The Potato: Evolution, Biodiversity & Genetic Resources, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
    Stevenson, W.R., Loria, R., Franc, G.D., and Weingartner, D.P. (2001) Compendium of Potato Diseases, 2nd ed, Amer. Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.


Editing of this article by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled.University of Bedfordshire If you are prevented from editing this article, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or create an account.
University of Bedfordshire
The University of Bedfordshire is a university created by the merger of the University of Luton and the Bedford campus of De Montfort University on 1 August 2006 following approval by the Privy Council.
Charlie George - Presenter on MAX TV - Media Performance.
Matt Fisher - Station Sound Imaging Producer BBC Radio 1 - Media Performance with Radio.
Debbie Randle - Senior Broadcast Journalist BBC Radio 1 - Modern English Studies.
Marie Kemp - Presenter on BBC Radio Berkshire - Media Performance and Radio.
Paul Woloszyn - BBC Digital Text - Modern English Studies.
Lucy Tricker - Chiltern FM Radio DJ
De Montfort University
University of Bedfordshire
University of Luton Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education Institutional Audit April 2005


Alice LiddellAlice Liddell
Alice Pleasance Liddell (May 4, 1852November 15, 1934) was the inspiration for children's classic Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll. Her surname Liddell is pronounced /lɪdl̩/ and rhymes with fiddle.

Origin of Alice in Wonderland
Alice Liddell was a daughter of Henry Liddell, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and his wife Lorina Hanna, née Reeve. Alice was the fourth child. She had two older brothers, Harry (born 1847) and Arthur (born 1850), who died of scarlet fever in 1853, and an older sister, Lorina (born 1849). She also had six younger siblings, including her sister Edith (born 1854), to whom she was very close. One of her younger brothers died as an infant.
At the time of her birth, Alice's father was the Dean of Westminster School but was soon after appointed to the deanery of Christ Church, Oxford. The Liddell family moved to Oxford in 1856. Soon after this move, Alice first met Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, who encountered the Dean's family while he was photographing the cathedral on April 25, 1856. Alice was almost four. He became a close friend of the Liddell family in subsequent years (see Relationship with Lewis Carroll below).
Alice grew up primarily in the company of the two sisters nearest to her in age: Lorina, who was three years older, and Edith, who was two years younger. She and her family regularly spent holidays at their holiday home Penmorfa, now the Gogarth Abbey Hotel on the wild West Shore of Llandudno in North Wales.
When Alice was a young woman, she set out on a grand tour of Europe with Lorina and Edith. Two years later, Edith died, possibly of measles or peritonitis (accounts differ), shortly before she was to be married. One story has it that Alice became a romantic interest of Prince Leopold, the youngest son of Queen Victoria, but the evidence for this is sparse. It is true that Leopold's first child was called 'Alice' and that he acted as godfather to Alice's son, Leopold Reginald Hargreaves. (Leopold's most recent biographer suggests it is far more likely that Alice's sister Edith was the true recipient of Leopold's attention.)
Alice married Reginald Hargreaves on September 15, 1880, at the age of 28 in Westminster Abbey. They had three sons: Alan Knyveton Hargreaves and Leopold Reginald "Rex" Hargreaves (both were killed in action in World War I); and Caryl Liddell Hargreaves, who survived to have a daughter of his own. Alice denied that the name 'Caryl' was in any way associated with Charles Dodgson's pseudonym. Reginald Hargreaves inherited a considerable fortune, and Alice became a noted society hostess.
After Reginald Hargreaves' death, the cost of maintaining their home, Cuffnells, was such that Alice deemed it necessary to sell her copy of Alice's Adventures Under Ground. The manuscript fetched nearly four times the reserve price given it by Sotheby's auction house and sold for £15,400. It became the possession of Eldridge R. Johnson and was displayed at Columbia University on the centennial of Carroll's birth. (Alice was present, aged 80, and it was on this visit to America that she met Peter Llewelyn-Davies, one of the brothers who were the inspiration for J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan). At Johnson's death, the book was purchased by a consortium of American bibliophiles and presented to the British people "in recognition of Britain's courage in facing Hitler before America came into the war." The manuscript now resides in the British Library.

The relationship between Alice Liddell and Charles Dodgson has been the source of much controversy. Many biographers have supposed that Dodgson was romantically or sexually attached to the child, though there has never been any direct proof for this and more benign accounts assume merely a platonic fondness. It is certainly true that the evidence pool on which any claims can be based is very small and that many authors writing on the topic have tended to indulge in a great deal of undocumented speculation.
Dodgson met the Liddell family in 1855. He first befriended Harry, the older brother, and later took both Harry and Ina on several boating trips and picnics to the scenic areas around Oxford. Later, when Harry went to school, Alice and her younger sister Edith joined the party. Dodgson entertained the children by telling them fantastic stories to while away the time. He also used them as subjects for his hobby, photography. It has often been stated that Alice was clearly his favorite subject in these years, but there is very little evidence to suggest that this is so. Dodgson's diaries from April 18, 1858 to May 8, 1862 are missing and were, presumably, destroyed by his heirs. They would have covered his close friendship with the Liddells and many other experiences. No one knows how or why they went missing.
The relationship between the Liddells and Dodgson suffered a sudden break in June 1863. Until recently, there was no record of why the rift occurred, since the Liddells never openly spoke of it, and the single page in Dodgson's diary recording June 27–29 1863 (which seems to cover the period of the break) is missing. Until recently, the only source for what happened on that day had been guesswork (of which there is much), all centered on the idea that Alice Liddell was, somehow, the cause of the break. It was long speculated that Alice's mother, Lorina Liddell, disapproved of Dodgson's interest in her daughter as she saw him as an unfit companion for her very young child, then only 11.


Bayshore Boulevard
Bayshore Boulevard is a street in Tampa, Florida, along Hillsborough Bay, an arm of Tampa Bay.
The Bayshore Greenway is a favorite of locals, especially joggers, runners, skaters, and bikers, for its scenic views of the bay and 4.5 miles of the world's longest continuous sidewalk, which starts on the north at Columbus Statue Park and ends at Gandy Boulevard.
Bayshore Boulevard also is the site of Tampa's annual Gasparilla parade.
Another Bayshore Boulevard exists in San Francisco, California. The street was once a portion of U.S. Route 101, but the designation was transferred to a parallel freeway.


East Coast Main Line
Using inline citations helps guard against copyright violations and factual inaccuracies. You may improve the article or discuss this issue on its talk page. Help on using footnotes is available. This article has been tagged since May 2007.
The East Coast Main Line (ECML) is the electrified high-speed railway link between London, Yorkshire, North East England and Edinburgh.
The route forms a key artery on the eastern side of Great Britain it is broadly paralleled by the A1 trunk road. It links London, the South East and East Anglia with Yorkshire, the North East Regions and Scotland. It also carries key commuter flows for the north side of London. It is therefore important to the economic health of a number of areas of the country. It also handles cross-country, commuter and local passenger services, and carries heavy tonnages of freight traffic.

The ECML has been witness to a number of incidents resulting in death and serious injury:

Abbots Ripton, 21 January 1876 - 14 people died when the Flying Scotsman crashed during a blizzard.
Grantham, 19 August 1906 - 14 people died, unidentified cause.
Welwyn Garden City, 15 June 1935 - 13 people died and 81 injured when 2 trains collided due to a signaller's error
Connington South, 5 March 1967 - 5 people died and 18 were injured when an express train was derailed.
4 serious crashes at Morpeth on 7 May 1969, 24 June 1984, 13 November 1992 and 27 June 1994
Penmanshiel Tunnel collapse on 17 March 1979
Newcastle Central Station, 30 November 1989 - 15 people were injured when two InterCity expresses collided
Hatfield rail crash, 17 October 2000 - 4 people killed, 15 injured when an InterCity 225 derailed. The accident's aftermath had grave consequences for the privatised infrastructure company, Railtrack.
Selby rail crash, 28 February 2001
Potters Bar rail crash, 10 May 2002
Copmanthorpe rail crash, 25 September 2006


Sophia Paleologue
Zoe Palaiologina (Greek Ζωή Παλαιολόγου, Russian Софья Фоминична Палеолог, c. 1455 - April 7, 1503), Grand Duchess of Moscow, was a niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI and second wife of Ivan III of Russia.
Her father was Thomas Palaeologus, the Despot of Morea. Together with her brothers, she was taken to Rome after conquest of Morea by Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire in 1460. In Rome, her Greek name Zoe was changed to Sophia. In 1469, Pope Paul II offered to marry her to the Russian monarch in order to unite the Orthodox and Catholic churches. The widowed Russian prince married unattractive and haughty Sophia at the Dormition Cathedral on November 12, 1472. The cardinal Johannes Bessarion, sent by the Pope to Moscow, however, did not succeed in his mission.
Over the years, Sophia started to wield great influence on her aged husband. It is thought that she was the first to introduce the Kremlin to grand Byzantine ceremonies and meticulous etiquette. The idea of Moscow as the Third Rome evidently pleased her. Shortly before her death she persuaded her husband to pass the throne to her son Vasili, rather than to Ivan's grandson Dmitry, as had been planned earlier. Apart from Vasili III, only her fifth son, Andrey of Staritsa, left issue.


Hans Guido Freiherr von Bülow (January 8, 1830February 12, 1894) was a German conductor, virtuoso pianist, and composer of the Romantic era. He was one of the most famous conductors of the 19th century, and his activity was critical for establishing the successes of several major composers of the time, including Richard Wagner.


"A tenor is not a man but a disease" Hans von Bülow Notable premieres

Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, Munich, June 10, 1865
Wagner, Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg, Hofoper, Munich, June 21, 1868 As pianist


For other uses of the term, see: Ornament
In architecture, ornament is a decorative detail used to embellish parts of a building or interior furnishing. Ornament can be carved from stone, wood or precious metals, formed with plaster or clay, or impressed onto a surface as applied ornament. A wide variety of decorative styles and motifs have been developed for architecture and the applied arts, including ceramics, furniture, metalwork and textiles.
In a 1941 essay, the architectural historian Sir John Summerson called it "surface modulation". Decoration and ornament has been evident in civilizations since the beginning of recorded history, ranging from Ancient Egyptian architecture to the apparent lack of ornament of 20th Century Modernist architecture.

Ornament (architecture) Pattern Books
There were two available routes from this perceived crisis. One was to attempt to devise an ornamental vocabulary that was new and essentially contemporary. This was the route taken by architects like Louis Sullivan and his pupil Frank Lloyd Wright, or by the unique Antoni Gaudí. Art Nouveau, for all its excesses, was a conscious effort to evolve such a "natural" vocabulary of ornament.
A more radical route abandoned the use of ornament altogether, as in some designs for objects by Christopher Dresser. At the time, such unornamented objects could have been found in many unpretending workaday items of industrial design, ceramics produced at the Arabia manufactory in Finland, for instance, or the glass insulators of electric lines.
This latter approach was described by architect Adolf Loos in his 1908 manifesto, translated into English in 1913 and polemically titled Ornament and Crime, in which he declared that lack of decoration is the sign of an advanced society. His argument was that ornament is economically inefficient and "morally degenerate", and that reducing ornament was a sign of progress. Modernists were eager to point to American architect Louis Sullivan as their godfather in the cause of aesthetic simplification, dismissing the knots of intricately patterned ornament that articulated the skin of his structures.
With the work of Le Corbusier and the Bauhaus through the 1920s and 1930s, lack of decorative detail became a hallmark of modern architecture and equated with the moral virtues of honesty, simplicity, and purity. In 1932 Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock dubbed this the "International Style". What began as a matter of taste was transformed into an aesthetic mandate. Modernists declared their way as the only acceptable way to build. As the style hit its stride in the highly-developed postwar work of Mies van der Rohe, the tenets of 1950s modernism became so strict that even accomplished architects like Edward Durrell Stone and Eero Saarinen could be ridiculed and effectively ostracized for departing from the aesthetic rules.


Baptism, from Greek βαπτίζω (baptízô), is a religious act of purification by water usually associated with admission to membership or fullness of membership of Christianity.
The Greek-English Lexicon of Liddell and Scott, the most authoritative source for the meaning of Greek words, gives the primary meaning of the word βαπτίζω, from which the English word baptism is derived, as dip, plunge, but indicates, citing Luke 11:38, that it was used also to mean perform ablutions. of Sikhism.
Because of the word's association with Christianity and its periodically repeated character, the Jewish purification rite of mikvah is not normally spoken of as baptism.
This article will mainly consider the practices and beliefs of Christians with regard to this rite and in particular the forms in which they hold that it should be administered.

Meaning of the Greek word βαπτίζω


Main article: Mikvah Background in Jewish ritual
The Bible gives accounts of baptisms performed before this period, in the lifetime of Jesus, by John the Baptist in the Jordan River,
On the separate but related question of whether early Christians baptized infants, see the article on infant baptism.

Apostolic period
The following period of Early Christianity seems to have introduced little to no changes. Immersion continued to be the usual method of baptism for the remission of sins, and there is no evidence to suggest that the practice of the first century differed in any way from what is known more precisely from the second and third centuries. "In the case of the sick or dying, where immersion was impossible, the sacrament was then conferred by one of the other forms. This was so well recognized that infusion or aspersion received the name of the "baptism of the sick" (baptismus clinicorum), because it was hardly an "immersion" or "dipping" in water. Cyprian's Epistle 75 (third century) declared this form to be valid. From the canons of various early councils we know that candidates for Holy orders who had been baptized by this method seem to have been regarded as irregular, but this was on account of the culpable negligence supposed to be manifested in delaying baptism until sick or dying. That such persons, however, were not to be rebaptized is an evidence that the Church held their baptism to be valid."
By the time of John Calvin, some held that immersion in water for remission of sins (Acts 2:38), the "burial in baptism" used as a figure of speech in Romans 6:4 and Colossians 2:12, was not required in Christianity to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Instead, they posited a waterless "baptism in the spirit", citing , Jesus on the day of his Ascension in Acts 1:5: "For John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days hence." (See Baptism in Hyperdispensationalism.)

Post-apostolic period
Today, baptism is most readily identified with Christianity, where it symbolizes the cleansing (remission) of sins, and the union of the believer with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection so that he may be called "saved" or "born again." Most Christian groups practice some form of literal water-based baptism and agree that it is important, yet strongly disagree with other groups regarding any or all of several aspects of the rite, such as:
A few Christian groups assert that water baptism has been supplanted by the promised "baptism of the Holy Spirit", and water baptism was unnecessarily carried over from the early Jewish Christian practice. Some require the explicit word "water" to be used in the text if it is to be interpreted as a literal baptism in water.

manner or method of the "baptism", including the necessity of using water
recipients of baptism
meaning and effects of baptism Modern practice
Today, Christian baptism takes many forms among Christian denominations, but the three basic forms are:
Aspersion - sprinkling water on the head
Affusion - pouring water over the head
Immersion - lowering the entire body into water.
For Christians who baptize by pouring or sprinkling, the washing with water from above pictures the cleansing of one's sins by the blood of Christ, by the Holy Spirit, who unites the baptized person to Christ in His death, and in His resurrection from the dead. Some Christians who immerse either take the same symbol after the fact as above or additionally account it as the penitents necessary obedience to the faith from the heart Mark 16:16, Romans 6:17, 1Peter 4:17 by which obedience God remits sins and imparts the indwelling Holy Spirit Acts 5:32 which will raise the body up on the last day just as the Spirit raised Jesus from the dead, Romans 8:9-11. However excepting Hyperdispensationalism and a few others who embrace a "faith only" position, it is believed to be the point at which the gift of the life-giving Spirit is received, and to portray baptism as an act not of man, but of God. Regardless of the form, baptism is usually a public rite, in testimony to others of the grace of God bestowed upon the person whose remitted sins, and as the seal of God's promises 2Corinthians 1:22, Ephesians 1:13 are received in Christ to those who believe.

Manner of baptism
There are differences in views about the effect of baptism for a Christian. Some Christian groups assert baptism is a requirement for salvation and a sacrament, and speak of "baptismal regeneration." This view is shared by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, by Churches formed early during the Protestant Reformation such as Lutheran, Anglican and Methodist, and Restorationist Churches such as the Churches of Christ and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). For example, Martin Luther said:
To put it most simply, the power, effect, benefit, fruit, and purpose of Baptism is to save. No one is baptized in order to become a prince, but as the words say, to "be saved." To be saved, we know, is nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and the devil and to enter into the kingdom of Christ and live with him forever.
For Roman Catholics, baptism by water is a sacrament of initiation into the life of children of God. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1212-13). It configures the person to Christ (CCC 1272), and obliges the Christian to share in the Church's apostolic and missionary activity (CCC 1270). The Catholic Tradition holds that there are three types of baptism by which one can be saved: sacramental baptism (with water), baptism of desire (explicit or implicit desire to be part of the Church founded by Jesus Christ), and baptism of blood (martyrdom) (see topic below : Catholic baptism and salvation).
By contrast, Baptist and Calvinist groups espouse baptism as a worthy practice, but say that baptism has no sacramental power, and only testifies outwardly to the invisible and internal operation of God's power, which is completely separate from the rite itself.

Meaning and effects of baptism
The liturgy of baptism in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican, and Methodist traditions makes clear reference to baptism as not only a symbolic burial and resurrection, but an actual supernatural transformation, one that draws parallels to the experience of Noah and the passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea divided by Moses. Thus baptism is literally and symbolically not only cleansing, but also dying and rising again with Christ. Catholics believe that baptism is necessary for the cleansing of the taint of original sin, and for that reason infant baptism is a common practice. The Eastern Churches (Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy) also baptize infants on the basis of texts such as Matthew 19:14, which are interpreted as supporting full Church membership for children, and so baptism is immediately followed by Chrismation and Communion at the next Divine Liturgy regardless of age. Orthodox likewise believe that baptism removes what they call the ancestral sin of Adam. Anglicans believe that Baptism is also the entry into the Church and therefore allows them access to all rights and responsibilities as full members, including the privilege to receive Holy Communion. Most Anglicans agree that it also cleanses the taint of what in the West is called original sin, in the East ancestral sin.
Eastern Orthodox Christians usually insist on complete three-fold immersion as both a symbol of death and rebirth into Christ, and as a washing away of sin. Latin Rite Catholics generally baptize by affusion (pouring); Eastern Catholics usually by immersion, at least partial. However immersion is gaining in popularity within the Latin Catholic Church. In newer churches, the baptismal font may be designed to expressly allow for baptism by immersion. Older church building may feature this as well by either building a new baptismal font or expanding an existing one. Anglicans baptize by immersion, affusion or sprinkling.
Although the New Testament contains no explicit instructions on how physically to administer the water of baptism (see Meaning of the word above), Baptists argue that the Greek word βαπτίζω found in the New Testament originally meant "to immerse". They also state that only immersion reflects the symbolic significance of being "buried" and "raised" with Christ (see Romans 6:3-4).

Baptism in most Christian traditions
Comparative Summary of Baptisms of Denominations of Christian Influence.

Comparative summary
The ecumenical paper Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry, prepared by representatives across a spectrum of Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestants traditions of Christianity, attempts to express a common understanding of baptism, as it is derived from the New Testament.
" ... according to Acts 2:38, baptisms follow from Peter's preaching baptism in the name of Jesus and lead those baptized to the receiving of Christ's Spirit, the Holy Ghost, and life in the community: "They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers" (2:42) as well as to the distribution of goods to those in need (2:45). Those who heard, who were baptized and entered the community's life, were already made witnesses of and partakers in the promises of God for the last days: the forgiveness of sins through baptism in the name of Jesus and the outpouring of the Holy Ghost on all flesh (2:38). Similarly, in what may well be a baptismal pattern, 1 Peter testifies that proclamation of the resurrection of Jesus Christ and teaching about new life (1:3-21) lead to purification and new birth (1:22-23). This, in turn, is followed by eating and drinking God's food (2:2-3), by participation in the life of the community — the royal priesthood, the new temple, the people of God (2:4-10) — and by further moral formation (2:11 ff.). At the beginning of 1 Peter the writer sets this baptism in the context of obedience to Christ and sanctification by the Spirit (1:2). So baptism into Christ is seen as baptism into the Spirit (cf. 1 Corinthians 12:13). In the fourth gospel Jesus' discourse with Nicodemus indicates that birth by water and Spirit becomes the gracious means of entry into the place where God rules (John 3:5)."

Ecumenical statement
In Roman Catholic teaching, baptism plays an essential role in salvation..
The Church recognizes two other forms of non biblical baptism: "baptism of blood" and "baptism of desire." Baptism of blood refers to unbaptized individuals who are martyred for the Faith, while baptism of desire generally refers to catechumens who die before they can be baptized. The Catechism of the Catholic Church describes these two forms:
The Church has always held the firm conviction that those who suffer death for the sake of the faith without having received Baptism are baptized by their death for and with Christ. This Baptism of blood, like the desire for Baptism, brings about the fruits of Baptism without being a sacrament. (1258)
For catechumens who die before their Baptism, their explicit desire to receive it, together with repentance for their sins, and charity, assures them the salvation that they were not able to receive through the sacrament. (1259)
Non-Christians who seek God with a sincere heart and, moved by grace, try to do His will as they know it through the dictates of conscience can also be saved without water baptism; they are said to desire it implicitly. (cf. Catechism, 1260). As for unbaptized infants, the Church is unsure of their fate; "the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God" (Catechism, 1261).

Baptism and salvation in Catholic teaching
Since the Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican Churches teach that baptism is a sacrament having actual spiritual and salvific effects, certain criteria must be complied with for it to be valid (i.e., to actually have those effects.) These criteria are actually broader than the ordinary practice. Violation of some rules regarding baptism renders the baptism illicit (in violation of the Church's laws) but still valid. For example, if a priest introduces some variation in the authorized rite for the ceremony, the baptism may still be valid (provided certain key criteria are met).
One of the criteria for validity is that the correct form of words be used. Latin Rite Roman Catholics and Episcopalians/Anglicans use the form "I baptize you..."; Eastern Orthodox and some Eastern Catholic Churches use the form "This servant of Christ is baptized..." or "This person is baptized by my hands...". These Churches recognize each other's form of baptism as valid to varying degrees. The Catholic Church teaches that the use of the verb "baptize" is essential. An article published together with the official declaration to that effect gave reasons for that judgement, summed up in the following words: "The Baptism of the Catholic Church and that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints differ essentially, both for what concerns faith in the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in whose name Baptism is conferred, and for what concerns the relationship to Christ who instituted it."

Conditions of the validity of a baptism
There is debate among Christian churches as to who can administer baptism. The examples given in the New Testament only show apostles and deacons administering baptism. Ancient Christian churches interpret this as indicating that baptism should be performed by the clergy except in extremis, i.e., when the one being baptized is in immediate danger of death. Then anyone may baptize, provided, in the view of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the person who does the baptizing is a member of that Church, or, in the view of the Roman Catholic Church, that the person, even if not baptized, intends to do what the Church does in administering the rite. Many Protestant churches see no specific prohibition in the biblical examples and permit any believer to baptize another.
In the Latin Rite Catholic Church the ordinary minister of baptism is a member of the clergy (bishop, priest or deacon), Phillip his own (such as the Ethiopian eunuch), etc.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, only a man holding the priesthood office of Priest or higher office may administer baptism.

Who may administer a baptism
Baptist groups derive their name either from the restrictions that they traditionally place on the mode and subjects of the ordinance of baptism or from a shortening of the term Anabaptist which means to rebaptize. Anabaptists were labeled such because they re-baptized people who had received infant baptism, sprinkling, or baptism of any sort by another denomination. Some modern Baptists do not believe baptism by immersion is the only legitimate form of baptism, they simply perform baptism by immersion for members who wish to be baptized. It does not imply that any previous form of baptism by affusion or sprinkling is invalid. Baptism is an act identifying one as having accepted Jesus Christ as Savior. And "one enters by baptism into the membership of the church which
performs it."
Baptist theologians (such as John Gill) teach that baptism is only for those who can understand and profess their faith. This is called believer's baptism. Some, such as Gill, argue that the regulative principle of worship, which many paedobaptists also advocate and which states that elements of worship (including baptism) must be based on explicit commands of Scripture, is violated by infant baptism. Some would argue that according to this understanding, the re-baptisms that Baptists generally perform if a person was not regenerate when baptized also violate the Regulative Principle for Worship. Furthermore, because the New Covenant is described in {{bibleverse||Jeremiah|31:31-34} as a time when all who were members of it would have the law written on their hearts and would know God, Baptist theology teaches that only those who are born again, as indicated by a profession of faith, are members of the New Covenant. They view this text as speaking of the visible church in the present age, rather than as a prophetic text of God's New Covenant in Christ administered to all saints from Genesis to the present, which will be fulfilled when Christ returns to earth. Baptism is therefore not administered to those unable to make a credible confession of saving faith in Christ prior to being baptized; but it will be administered upon making this confession, regardless of the confessor's age. Some Baptist churches take exception to this and are very hesitant to baptize young children because they want to confirm whether or not they are regenerate. A confession alone is not enough for these churches, they want to see fruit of regeneration in the life of the person to be baptized, which some argue violates the example set forth in the book of Acts, which performed immediate baptisms.
Those who hold views influenced by the Baptists may perform the ceremony indoors in a baptismal font, a swimming pool, or a bathtub, or outdoors in a creek or river: as long as there is water, nothing prevents the performance of Baptism. Protestant groups influenced by these convictions usually emphasize that it memorializes the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus (Romans 6), which according to the grace of God has become the basis of repentance and new life for those who have professed belief in Him, symbolizing spiritual death with regard to sin and a new life of faith in God. They typically teach that baptism does not accomplish anything in itself, but is an outward sign or testimony, a personal act, indicating the invisible reality that the person's sins have already been washed away by the cross of Christ, and applied to their life according to their profession of faith. It is also understood to be a covenantal act, signifying entrance into the New Covenant of Christ (Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:8-12, Romans 6).
For Baptists, baptism is a requirement for church membership, rather than a necessary requirement for salvation. Once baptized, a Baptist may move their membership to another congregation by letter.
The above description applies not just to those denominations using Baptist in their names, but also to a wide variety of other Protestant denominations deriving from the Anabaptist tradition, including some Mennonites and Pentecostals.

Anabaptist and Baptist baptism

Main article: Covenant Theology#Baptism Reformed and Covenant Theology view
This section is a part of a series on The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
See also: Baptism for the dead and Rebaptism (Latter Day Saints)
In the Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism), baptism is recognized as the first ordinance of the gospel. As with many other Restorationist faiths, baptism must be by immersion for the remission of sins (meaning that through baptism, past sins are forgiven), and occurs after one has shown faith and repentance. LDS baptism does not intend to remit any sins other than personal ones, as the LDS Church does not believe in original sin.
Latter Day Saint baptisms also occur only after an "age of accountability", or the age at which a child begins to know right from wrong, which is defined by the church as the age of eight years. Mormonism rejects infant baptism. In addition, Mormonism requires that baptism may only be performed with one who has been called and ordained by God with priesthood authority. Since the LDS Church has a lay priesthood, children raised in an LDS family are usually baptized by a father or close male friend or family member who has achieved the office of priest, which is conferred to "worthy" male members at the age of 16.
Latter Day Saints do not believe that the gift of the Holy Spirit occurs immediately after baptism; rather, the gift is given by the laying on of hands in a separate confirmation ritual after baptism. This ritual is believed to be confirmed by Paul's actions in Acts 19:6, where, following the baptism of several followers of Christ, he "laid his hands upon" those who were baptized and they then received the Holy Ghost.
The process of repentance and sanctification continues by partaking of the sacrament every week, which Latter Day Saints consider to be a renewal of one's baptismal covenant with God. They also believe that baptism is symbolic both of Jesus's death, burial and resurrection and of the death and burial of the natural or sinful man and rebirth as a disciple of Jesus of the one baptized.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (or "Mormon" Church), baptism and confirmation are only the first of several ordinances believed to be required for exaltation. Membership into the LDS Church is granted only by baptism whether or not a person has been raised in the church. As Latter-day Saints do not recognize the validity of baptisms of other faiths, all who come into the church as converts are baptized, even if they have previously received baptism in another faith. The person being baptized must be at least eight years old. The church also practices baptism for the dead (along with all other ordinances) "vicariously" or "by proxy" in their temples for anyone who did not receive these ordinances while living.
Baptisms inside and outside the temples are usually done in a font, although they can be performed in any body of water in which the person may be completely immersed. In Latter-day Saint temples, where proxy baptisms are performed for the dead, the fonts rest on the sculptures of twelve oxen representing the twelve tribes of Israel, following the pattern of the "molten sea" in the Temple of Solomon (see 2 Chronicles 4:2-5). Great care is taken in the execution of the baptism; if the baptism is not executed properly it must be redone. The person administering the baptism must recite the prayer exactly, and immerse every part, limb, hair and clothing of the person being baptized. If there are any mistakes, or if any part of the person being baptized is not fully immersed, the baptism must be redone. In addition to the baptizer, two priesthood holders witness the baptism to ensure that it is performed properly.

Baptism in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Baptism is also practiced by Jehovah's Witnesses, who believe that it should be performed by complete immersion only when one is old enough to understand the significance of it. They teach that water baptism is an outward symbol that one has made a complete, unreserved, and unconditional dedication through Jesus Christ to do the will of Jehovah God. Jehovah's Witnesses usually baptize converts at large conventions rather than at the local Kingdom Halls.

Jehovah's Witnesses
There is no single statement of conformity on the doctrine of baptism as practiced by Churches of Christ, yet there are several similarities among the vast majority of congregations: Basically, Churches of Christ believe in the age of accountability and believer's baptism. Churches of Christ practice immersion baptism only and do not baptize infants. However, they also believe that baptism is necessary for salvation. There is no restriction upon who may perform a baptism, but it is usually done by an adult male. Adult converts are baptized, as are children who are old enough to understand that they are accountable for their sins and to understand the sacrifice of Christ and the meaning of his death, burial, and resurrection.
Scriptural Basis: Churches of Christ interpret Matthew's version of the Great Commission as requiring that baptism be by a full immersion in water, though the text does not specify the manner in which baptism is to be performed. Romans 6:3-5 compares baptism to a "burial", in their view indicating, along with other descriptions in the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, that baptism was an immersion. They see Acts 2:38 as teaching that repentance precedes baptism and that the remission of sins occurs at baptism. Though they often cite this verse when discussing the doctrine of baptism, they disagree on what the phrase "the gift of the Holy Spirit" that comes after baptism means, but most understand it to mean the gift of salvation promised by God through the Spirit (cf. Acts 2:21, Romans 6:23, Titus 1:1-2 {{{3}}}). They say that Acts 8:36 ("Now as they went down the road, they came to some water. And the eunuch said, "See, here is water. What hinders me from being baptized?") and other passages assert that the baptismal burial is in water, not in some spiritual or figurative element.
Churches of Christ sites quote 1 Peter 3:21 ("Baptism doth also now save us") and take it to mean that baptism is essential to salvation. However, the same verse goes on to say, "not the removal of dirt from flesh [ie, with water], but the appeal of a clean conscience to God." Romans 6:3 states that baptism puts one into the death of Christ, and Galatians 3:27 that baptism clothes one in Christ. John 3:1-7 has also been cited to exclude salvation without baptism. The correct interpretation of these verses is disputed.

Baptism in Churches of Christ
Hyperdispensationalists assert:
Water baptism found early in the book of Acts is, according to this view, now supplanted by the one baptism (1 Corinthians 12:13) foretold by John the Baptist (Luke 3:16, John 1:33, Matt 3:11, Acts 1:5). The one baptism for today, it is asserted, is the "baptism of the Holy Spirit" (Acts 11:15-16). This, "spirit" baptism, however, is unlikely given the texts and facts that the baptisms of the Eunuch (Acts 8:36) and the household of Cornelius (Acts 10:47-48) were explicitly in water. Further evidence points to the humanly administered Great Commission which was to last until the end of the world Matthew 28:19-20. Therefore, the baptism the Ephesians underwent was water by context (Ephesians 5:26; Acts 19:1-5). Likewise, Holy Spirit Baptism is recorded as only occurring twice in all the book of Acts to selected individuals (Acts 2:1-4; Acts 10:44-46). Finally, it is argued that only Jesus possessed the power to baptize with the Holy Spirit and with Fire which eliminates any mortal ever doing, Matthew 3:11, Luke 3:16.
"John answered, saying to all, "I indeed baptize you with water; but One mightier than I is coming, whose sandal strap I am not worthy to loose. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire" (Luke 3:16)
Many in this group also argue that John's promised baptism by fire is pending, referring to the destruction of the world by fire (Matthew 3:12, Luke 3:17, 2 Peter 3:10).
John, as he said "baptized with water," as did Jesus's disciples to the early, Jewish Christian church. Jesus himself never personally baptized with water, but did so through his disciples (John 4:1-2). Unlike Jesus' first Apostles, Paul, his Apostle to the Gentiles, was sent to preach rather than to baptize (1 Corinthians 1:17) but did occasionally baptize, for instance in Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:14-16) and in Philippi (Acts 16:13), in the same manner as they (cf. Math 28:19). In Romans 6:4 he also taught the spiritual significance of the submerging in baptism and how one contacts the atoning death of Christ in such.

The great commission ({{bibleverse||Matthew|28:18-20}) and its baptism is directed to early Jewish believers, not the Gentile believers of mid-Acts or later.
The baptism of Acts 2:36-38 is Peter's call for Israel to repent of complicity in the death of the Messiah; not as an Gospel announcement of atonement for sin, a later doctrine revealed by Paul. Other baptisms
Many cultures practice or have practiced rites similar to Christian baptism, including the ancient Egyptian, the Hebraic/Jewish, the Babylonian, the Mayan, and the Norse cultures. The modern Japanese practice of Miyamairi is not entirely dissimilar. In some, such evidence may be archaeological and descriptive in nature, rather than a modern practice.

Non-Christian religions
Apuleius, a second-century Roman writer, described his initiation into the mysteries of Isis:
The priest brought me to the next baths, surrounded by the pious troop, and after I had had an ordinary bath, he prayed for the grace of the gods and cleansed me completely, sprinkling me with water from all sides.

Mystery religion initiation rites
Mandaeans, who abhor Jesus and Moses as false prophets, revere John the Baptist and practice frequent baptism.

Mandaean baptism

Main article: Amrit Sanskar Sikh baptism ceremony
Islam recommends a sort of washing called Ghosol (Arabic word means washing) which should include the washing of the whole body in special order or immersion of the whole body in a river for instance. This Ghosol is required for an adult when adopting Islam, after each sexual intercourse or a wetdream or a menstrual cycle. Also is required to be done for dead bodies.
Such Ghosol is very differnt from practises in other religions,as it is a mere equivalent of taking a bath. A person takes it alone privately, whenever it s indicated or he wants. Its far away from being called a ritual.

Ritual washing in Islam
The Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica, or Gnostic Catholic Church (the ecclesiastical arm of Ordo Templi Orientis), offers the Rite of Baptism to any person at least 11 years old.

Gnostic Catholicism and Thelema

Metaphorical baptisms
Although it is technically an improper use of the term, the word baptism is sometimes used to describe other non-sacramental ceremonies.

The name Baptism of Bells has been given to the blessing of (musical, especially church) bells, at least in France, since the eleventh century. It is derived from the washing of the bell with holy water by the bishop, before he anoints it with the oil of the infirm without and with chrism within; a fuming censer is placed under it and the bishop prays that these sacramentals of the Church may, at the sound of the bell, put the demons to flight, protect from storms, and call the faithful to prayer.
Baptism of Ships: at least since the time of the Crusades, rituals have contained a blessing for ships. The priest begs God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in it, as He did the ark of Noah, and Peter, when the Apostle was sinking in the sea, and the ship is sprinkled with holy water. Baptism of objects
Although even the use of water is often absent, the term baptism is also used for various initiations as rite of passage to a walk of secular life.

In Belgium, for example, one word for academic hazing is schachtendoop ('pledge baptism') in Dutch or Baptême in French. It is the traditional way of initiation into student societies (generally gender-mixed) and is accepted by institutions of higher education and sometimes controlled, e.g. by the Belgian universities UCL and ULB.
In the Brazilian martial art capoeira, an annual promotion ceremony is held, known as a batizado (literally "baptism"). For practitioners participating in their first batizado, it is traditional to receive their Capoeira names at that time, as a mark that they have been received in the community of Capoeiristas. The name is often given by the senior instructor or other senior students, and is largely determined by an individual way they perform a movement, how they look, or something else unique to the individual. Their Capoeira name is often used as a nom de guerre within Capoeira circles, a tradition which dates back to when practicing Capoeira was illegal in Brazil.
See also baptism by fire. Non-religious baptism

See also

Baptism of Jesus
Believer's baptism
Baptism of desire
Disciple (Christianity)
Infant baptism
Prevenient Grace
Conditional baptism
Emergency baptism
Jesus-Name doctrine
Baptistery Related articles and subjects

Baptismal font
Holy water
John the Baptist
Chrisom People and ritual objects

"In Defense of Infant Baptism" Issues Etc. Journal (http://www.issuesetc.org/resource/journals/v2n3.htm#In%20Defense%20of%20Infant%20Baptism)
Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry (Faith and order paper). World Council of Churches, 1982. ISBN 978-2-8254-0709-7
Jungkuntz, Richard. The Gospel of Baptism. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1968.
Kolb, Robert. Make Disciples Baptizing: God's Gift of New Life and Christian Witness. Fascicle Series, Number 1. St. Louis: Concordia Seminary Publications, 1997. ISBN 978-0-911770-66-7
Scaer, David P. Baptism. Confessional Lutheran Dogmatics, Vol. XI. St. Louis: The Luther Academy, 1999. OCLC 41004868, ASIN B0006R304U
Schlink, Edmund. The Doctrine of Baptism. Herbert J. A. Bouman, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1972. ISBN 978-0-570-03726-2
Stookey, L.H. Baptism: Christ's Act in the Church. Nashville: Abingdon, 1982. ISBN 978-0-687-02364-6
Ware, Timothy (Bishop Kallistos of Diokleia). The Orthodox Church (2nd ed.). London: Penguin Books, 1993, pp 277-278. ISBN 978-0-14-014656-1
Willimon, William. Remember Who You Are: Baptism and the Christian Life. Nashville: Upper Room, 1980. ISBN 978-0-8358-0399-1 Resources



Baptism (orthodoxwiki.org) Orthodox

Catholic Encyclopedia: Baptism
Baptism - Catholic Sacrament of Initiation - Christening
Catechism of the Catholic Church: Baptism Catholic

Baptism in the Baptist Faith and Message (1963)
Baptist Handbook For Church Members Baptist

"By Water & the Spirit" (Official UMC Statement on Baptism)
FAQs about Baptism, Membership, & Salvation (United Methodist Church General Board of Discipleship) Methodist

Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online: Baptism Baptism Mormon

Baptism according to the Church of Christ