Terence David John Pratchett OBE (born 28 April 1948) is an English fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. Other works include the Johnny Maxwell Trilogy and the Bromeliad Trilogy. He also closely collaborates on adaptations of his books, such as computer games and plays.
Pratchett started to write by the age of 13 and his first work was published commercially at the age of 15.

About 1968,

Pratchett was the British Book Awards Fantasy and Science Fiction Author of the Year for 1994.

Terry Pratchett married his wife Lyn in 1968

Terry Pratchett Personal life
Pratchett has written both fantasy and sci-fi literature but focuses almost entirely on fantasy because, according to his own words, "it is easier to bend the universe around the story" in fantasy.

Terry Pratchett makes no secret of outside influences on his work; they are a major source of humour. He imports numerous characters from popular culture and ancient history

Aside from his distinctive writing style, Pratchett is known for the use of footnotes in his books. Some characters are parody of well known real or fictional characters. For example, the Pratchett's character Cohen the Barbarian is a parody of Conan the Barbarian and Leonard of Quirm is a parody of Leonardo da Vinci.
The use of capitalized dialogue (without speech marks) to indicate one of the series' most permanent characters, Death, communicating directly to an individual's mind without speech, is also a trademark of his writing.

Pratchett started to use computers for writing as soon as they became available. His first computer was the Sinclair ZX81, but the first computer he used for writing was the Amstrad 464, later replaced by the PC. His experiments with computer upgrades reflected on Hex, the only fictional computer in the Discworld series.


Together with Ian Stewart and Jack Cohen, Pratchett wrote The Science of Discworld (1999), The Science of Discworld II: The Globe (2002) and The Science of Discworld III: Darwin's Watch (2005). All of these have chapters that alternate between fiction and non-fiction, with the fictional chapters being set within the universe of the Discworld, as its characters observe and experiment on a universe not unlike ours. In 1999 Terry Pratchett made both Cohen and Stewart "Honorary Wizards of the Unseen University" at the same ceremony at which the University of Warwick gave Terry Pratchett an honorary degree.

Related works

1988 Truckers
1990 Diggers
1990 Wings The Bromeliad Trilogy

1992 Only You Can Save Mankind
1993 Johnny and the Dead
1996 Johnny and the Bomb The Johnny Maxwell Trilogy

1971 The Carpet People
1976 The Dark Side of the Sun
1981 Strata
1989 The Unadulterated Cat (with Gray Jolliffe)
1990 Good Omens (with Neil Gaiman)
2008 Nation Other works

After the King edited by Martin H. Greenberg (1992) contains "Troll Bridge", a story featuring Cohen the Barbarian (also published in Knights of Madness and The Mammoth Book of Comic Fantasy, see below).
The Wizards of Odd edited by Peter Haining (1996) includes a Discworld short story called "Theatre of Cruelty"
The Flying Sorcerers edited by Peter Haining (1997) is the "sequel" to The Wizards of Odd and starts off with a Pratchett story called "Turntables of the Night", featuring Death.
Knights of Madness, again edited by Peter Haining (1998) is the "sequel" to The Flying Sorcerers and contains the Discworld short story "Troll Bridge" (also published in The Mammoth Book of Comic Fantasy, see below).
Legends, edited by Robert Silverberg contains a Discworld short story called "The Sea and Little Fishes".
Meditations on Middle-Earth (2002)
The Leaky Establishment written by David Langford and recently re-issued for which Pratchett provided a foreword
The Mammoth Book of Comic Fantasy edited by Mike Ashley (2001) contains "Troll Bridge", a story featuring Cohen the Barbarian.
Once More* *With Footnotes edited by Priscilla Olson and Sheila M. Perry (2004) is "an assortment of short stories, articles, introductions, and ephemera" by Pratchett which "have appeared in books, magazines, newspapers, anthologies, and program books, many of which are now hard to find."
Now We Are Sick written by Neil Gaiman and Stephen Jones includes the poem called "The Secret Book of the Dead".
The Writers' and Artists' Yearbook 2007 includes an article by Pratchett about the process of writing fantasy. Books containing contributions from Pratchett

Johnny and the Dead and 14 Discworld novels have been adapted as plays by Stephen Briggs and published in book form.

Johnny and the Dead was made into a TV serial for Children's ITV on ITV in 1995. In January 2006 BBC aired a three-part adaptation of Johnny and the Bomb.
A two part feature length version of Hogfather starring David Jason and the voice of Ian Richardson was first aired before Christmas on 17 and 18 December 2006 on Sky One and, in high-definition, on Sky One HD. Pratchett was opposed to live action films about Discworld before because of his negative experience with Hollywood film makers.
Truckers was adapted as a stop-animation series for Thames Television by Cosgrove Hall Films. Wyrd Sisters and Soul Music were adapted as animated series by Cosgrove Hall Films for Channel 4 in 1996. An illustrated screenplay for Wyrd Sisters was published in 1998 and for Soul Music in 1997.

Terry Pratchett's novel The Wee Free Men is set to be turned into a film by Sam Raimi; currently the film is expected to be released in 2008.

The Colour of Magic, Guards! Guards!, Wyrd Sisters, Mort and Small Gods have been dramatised as serials, and The Amazing Maurice and his Educated Rodents has been heard as a 90-minute play, all for BBC Radio 4.

The Colour of Magic, The Light Fantastic, Mort, and Guards! Guards! have been adapted into graphic novels.

Comic books
GURPS Discworld (Steve Jackson Games, 1998) and GURPS Discworld Also (Steve Jackson Games, 2001) are role-playing source books which were written by Terry Pratchett and Phil Masters, which also offer insights into the workings of the Discworld and the power of narrative. The first of these two books was re-released in September 2002 under the name of The Discworld Roleplaying Game with art by Paul Kidby.

PC and Console games
A collection of essays about his writings is compiled in the book Terry Pratchett: Guilty of Literature, edited by Andrew M. Butler, Edward James and Farah Mendlesohn, published by Science Fiction Foundation in 2000. A second expanded edition was published by Old Earth Books in 2004. Andrew M. Butler also wrote the Pocket Essentials Guide to Terry Pratchett published in 2001. Writers Uncovered: Terry Pratchett is a biography for young readers by Vic Parker published by Heinemann Library in 2006.






For the fictional Island of Sodor, see Sodor (fictional island).
Sodor and Man is a diocese of the Church of England. Originally much larger, today it covers just the Isle of Man and its adjacent islets.
The Norwegian diocese of Sodor was formed 1154, covering the Hebrides and the other islands along the west coast of Scotland. The name in the original Norse was Súðreyjar or Sudreys, or "southern isles", in contrast to the Norðreyjar, the "northern isles" of Orkney and Shetland. The Isle of Man was included in with these southern isles. This diocese was a part of the archdiocese of Trondheim.
Norway controlled all these islands until 1266, when they were ceded to Scotland. The Isle of Man was detached from the Scottish islands and came under the suzerainty of the Kings of England in 1334. Thereafter it was held by feudal Lords of Man (the Stanleys, Earls of Derby, from 1406 to 1736 and the Dukes of Atholl from 1736) until the lordship was purchased by the British Crown in 1765. The right to appoint the Bishop of Sodor and Man belonged to the Lords of Man, and continued to be exercised by the Dukes of Atholl after the 'revestment' in 1765 until it was surrendered to the Crown in 1828.
It is possible that the origin of the name "Sodor" was lost and its meaning was applied to this islet as the seat of the bishop. The termination "and Man" appears to have been added in the 17th century by a legal draughtsman ignorant of the proper application of the name of Sodor to the bishopric of Man. By the latter part of the 16th century the terms "Sodor" and "Man" had become interchangeable, the bishopric being spoken of as that of Sodor or Man. Until 1604 the bishops invariably signed themselves "Sodorensis"; between that date and 1684, sometimes they used "Soderensis" and sometimes "Sodor and Man"; and since 1684 all bishops have invariably signed "Sodor and Man".
The original cathedral of the Diocese of Sodor and Man was on St Patrick's Isle at Peel (the only city on Man). This cathedral fell into disuse during the 18th century and for many years there was only a Pro-cathedral in Douglas. In 1980, the present cathedral of the Diocese of Sodor and Man, the parish church of St German in Peel, was designated by Act of Tynwald.
Since Man is outside of the United Kingdom, the Bishop does not count as a Lord Spiritual and does not sit in the House of Lords of the United Kingdom. However, he is a member of the Legislative Council of the Isle of Man.
Bath & Wells · Birmingham · Bristol · Canterbury · Chelmsford · Chichester · Coventry · Derby · Ely · Exeter · Gibraltar in Europe · Gloucester · Guildford · Hereford · Leicester · Lichfield · Lincoln · London · Norwich · Oxford · Peterborough · Portsmouth · Rochester · Saint Albans · Saint Edmundsbury & Ipswich · Salisbury · Southwark · Truro · Winchester · Worcester
Blackburn · Bradford · Carlisle · Chester · Durham · Liverpool · Manchester · Newcastle · Ripon & Leeds · Sheffield · Sodor & Man · Southwell & Nottingham · Wakefield · York
Bangor · Llandaff · Monmouth · Saint Asaph · Saint David's · Swansea & Brecon
Aberdeen & Orkney · Argyll & the Isles · Brechin · Edinburgh · Glasgow & Galloway · Moray, Ross & Caithness · Saint Andrews, Dunkeld & Dunblane
Armagh · Clogher · Connor · Derry and Raphoe · Down & Dromore · Kilmore, Elphin & Ardagh · Tuam, Killala & Achonry
Cashel & Ossory · Cork, Cloyne & Ross · Dublin · Limerick & Killaloe · Meath & Kildare
Diocese of Sodor and Man


Yuri Lonchakov
Yuri Valentinovich Lonchakov (Russian: Юрий Валентинович Лончаков; born 4 March 1965) is a Russian cosmonaut and a veteran of two space missions.
Lonchakov was born in Balkhash and entered the Russian Air Force following graduation from high school in 1982. He served as a paratrooper and pilot and was selected as a cosmonaut candidate in 1997. Lonchakov's first spaceflight was Space Shuttle mission STS-100, visiting the International Space Station. Lonchakov again visited the ISS in 2002 aboard the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-1.



Main article: Holism in science Holism in science

Main articles: Semantic holism and confirmation holism Holism in philosophy
Holism appears in psychosomatic medicine. In the 1970s the holistic approach was considered one possible way to conceptualize psychosomatic phenomena. Instead of charting one-way causal links from psyche to soma, or vice-versa, it aimed at a systemic model, where multiple biological, psychological and social factors were seen as interlinked. Other, alternative approaches at that time were psychosomatic and somatopsychic approaches, which concentrated on causal links only from psyche to soma, or from soma to psyche, respectively. (Lipowski 1977) At present it is commonplace in psychosomatic medicine to state that psyche and soma cannot really be separated for practical or theoretical purposes. A disturbance on any level - somatic, psychic, or social - will radiate to all the other levels, too. In this sense, psychosomatic thinking is similar to the biopsychosocial model of medicine.
In alternative medicine, an holistic approach to healing recognizes that the emotional, mental, spiritual and physical elements of each person comprise a system, and attempts to treat the whole person in its context, concentrating on the cause of the illness as well as symptoms. Examples of such holistic therapies include Acupuncture, Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, Osteopathic manipulation, Naturopathic medicine, Qi Gong, Reiki, and Reflexology. Some of these schools do not originate from the western medical-scientific tradition, and lack scientific evidence to verify their claims. Others, such as osteopathic medicine, make an attempt to blend allopathic medicine with other modalities.

Holistic Holism in medicine
Architecture and industrial design are often seen as enterprises, which constitute a whole, or to put it another way, design is often argued to be an holistic enterprise. In architecture and industrial design holism tends to imply an all-inclusive design perspective, which is often regarded as somewhat exclusive to the two design professions. Holism is often considered as something that sets architects and industrial designers apart from other professions that participate in design projects. This view is supported and advocated by practising designers and design scholars alike, who often argue that architecture and/or industrial design have a distinct holistic character.

Holism in architecture and industrial design

Main article: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Holism in sociology
With roots in Schumpeter, the evolutionary approach might be considered the holist theory in economics. They share certain language from the biological evolutionary approach. They take into account how the innovation system evolve overtime. Knowledge and know-how, know-who, know-what and know-why are part of the whole business economics. Knowledge can also be tacit, as described by Polanyi. These models are open, and consider that it is hard to predict exactly the impact of a policy measure. They are also less mathematical.

Holism in economics
Alfred Adler believed that the individual (an integrated whole expressed through a self-consistent unity of thinking, feeling, and action, moving toward an unconscious, fictional final goal), must be understood within the larger wholes of society, from the groups to which he belongs (starting with his face-to-face relationships), to the larger whole of mankind. The recognition of our social embeddedness and the need for developing an interest in the welfare of others, as well as a respect for nature, is at the heart of Adler's philosophy of living and principles of psychotherapy.
Edgar Morin, the French philosopher and sociobiologist, can be considered a holist based on the transdisciplinary nature of his work.
Mel Levine, M.D., author of A Mind at a Time, (Simon & Schuster, 2002) and Co-Founder (with Charles R. Schwab) of the not-for-profit organization All Kinds of Minds, can be considered a holist based on his view of the 'whole child' as a product of many systems and his work supporting the educational needs of children through the management of a child's educational profile as a whole rather than isolated weaknesses in that profile.

Teleological holism in psychology
There is an ongoing dispute on the definition of anthropology as holistic and the "four-field" approach. Supporters of this definition,

Holism in anthropology
In theological anthropology, which belongs to theology and not to anthropology, holism is the belief that the nature of humans consists of an indivisible union of components such as body, soul and spirit.

Holism in theological anthropology
The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives identifies many levels of cognitive functioning, which can be used to create a more holistic education. In authentic assessment, rather than using computers to score multiple choice test, a standards based assessment uses trained scorers to score open-response items using holistic scoring methods. In projects such as the North Carolina Writing Project, scorers are instructed not to count errors, or count numbers of points or supporting statements. The scorer is instead, instruct to judge holistically whether "as a whole" is it more a "2" or a "3". Critics question whether such a process can be as objective as computer scoring, and the degree to which such scoring methods can result in different scores from different scorers.

Holism in education reform

Buckminster Fuller
Gestalt psychology
Kurt Goldstein
Howard T. Odum
Systems theory
Holistic science
Willard Van Orman Quine Notes

Bertalanffy, Ludvig von: General System Theory. Foundations Development Applications. Allen Lane 1971 (1968)
Lipowski, Z.J.: "Psychosomatic medicine in seventies". Am. J. Psych. 134:3:233-244
Smuts, Jan C.: Holism and Evolution, 1926 MacMillan, Compass/Viking Press 1961 reprint: ISBN 0-598-63750-8, Greenwood Press 1973 reprint: ISBN 0-8371-6556-3, Sierra Sunrise 1999 (mildly edited): ISBN 1-887263-14-4
Leenhardt, M. Do Kamo. La personne et le mythe dans le monde mélanésien. Gallimard. Paris. 1947.


Areas of Leeds
Leeds, West Yorkshire is a large city in the UK and It has lots of areas. For places within Leeds metropolitan district, but outside the city itself see Leeds environs
Beckett Park
Beck Hill
Belle Isle
Chapel Allerton
City Centre
Cross Flatts
Cross Gates
East End Park
Halton Moor
Holt Park
Hyde Park
Ireland Wood
Little London
Miles Hill
Moor Grange
Quarry Hill
Richmond Hill
Scott Hall
Temple Newsam
West Park


Atos Origin
Atos Origin, SA (Euronext: ATO) is an international IT corporation which operates in 40 countries worldwide, with over 50,000 employees.
The corporate headquarters are located in Paris, France and Zaventem, Belgium. Atos Origin is registered in France, and quoted on Euronext Paris as Atos Origin, Atos Euronext Market Solutions, Atos Worldline and Atos Consulting. Its CEO is Philippe Germond.
The company's core business areas are: Information Technology, Medical Services, and Business Consulting.
Atos Origin is the official worldwide information technology partner of the Olympic Games, providing and running all IT infrastructure for the Games.
Under the medical services portfolio, Atos Origin runs two commuter walk-in clinics for the NHS of Great Britain, as well as providing medical assessments for the Department of Work & Pensions in the UK.
The company has a worldwide presence, but with a focus on Europe – its historical base – and Asia as a growth market.
The company's logo is a fish: the powder blue tang.


Third Lanark Athletic Club was a Scottish football team that existed from 1872 to 1967 and were based in Glasgow.
Originally one of the great clubs of early Scottish Football, Third Lanark were far from being the first major Scottish football club to be declared bankrupt and dissolved (former Scottish Cup winners Renton & their neighbours Vale Of Leven suffered similar fates - although the latter were resurrected as a Junior side later). But their demise was considered a shock due to the fact only a few years earlier they had finished third in the championship division, scoring over 100 goals in the process. Thus the death of Third Lanark has become the standard cautionary tale in world football of the danger to any club whose ground is on land ideally located for development by unscrupulous businessmen.
Third Lanark started as the football team for the Third Lanarkshire Rifle Volunteers. Known as 3rd LRV the name was changed to Third Lanark A.C. when the official links with the military were severed. The club was a founder member of the Scottish Football League. They had also won the league championship in 1904, as well as winning the Scottish Cup in 1889 and 1905 and the Glasgow Cup in 1903, 1904, 1909 and 1963.
Third Lanark were known as Thirds, the Warriors, the Redcoats or the Hi-Hi (the latter owing to the "Hi Hi Hi!" chant from their fans).
Third Lanark played at Cathkin Park. This was previously known as Hampden Park (the second of three grounds to bear this name) before Queen's Park sold it to Third Lanark and moved to a new stadium of the same name. Cathkin Park is currently owned by Glasgow City Council, and remains of the terracing can still be seen.
The club was declared bankrupt after a Board Of Trade enquiry and was liquidated in 1967. Boardroom corruption allegedly played a role in this; the role of the chairman of Thirds, Bill Hiddleston, remains subject to intense debate: he may have wished to personally profit from the sale of Cathkin Park for property development (Cathkin was sold for housing during the 1967 close season, but Glasgow City Council refused building permission).
On the other hand he did build the club a new stand in 1963 - hardly in keeping with someone interested in running the club to a fold - and another allegation was that Hiddleston wanted to force the club to move to either Cumbernauld or East Kilbride, the booming "New Towns" within the Glasgow commuter belt which at that time had no Senior side of their own.
(This is certainly plausible as Scottish football was awash with all manner of crackpot schemes from club chairman at this time: eg. the "East Stirlingshire Clydebank" fiasco a few years before when the Steedman brothers attempted to "move" East Stirlingshire FC from Falkirk to Clydebank by buying out a local non-league team - the "merger" lasted one season before the courts dissolved it - and the "Strathclyde Academicals" attempt to merge Clyde FC with Hamilton Academicals).
What was certainly the case was that the club was now in the hands of one man & his toadies, none of whom were up to the task of running a professional football club. This was evidence from the damning report by The Board Of Trade into Third Lanark's activities in 1967: players were paid tardily & often in silver, they had to make their own way to away matches, hot water was not available after matches; and every facet of the club's management was from a personal appointment by Hiddleston. In short, there was a wave of disincentive for anyone to remain working for or even being a shareholder of the club if they were not part of Hiddleston's clique, and to whatever plans they had for the Hi-Hi.

Third Lanark A.C. The End
The last day of season 1960/61 saw Third Lanark reach an historic landmark. They beat Hibernian 6-1 at Cathkin Park to reach a commendable 100 goals for the season, and their win secured an honourable third place in the most competitive First Division league table. The 'scarlet' goalscoring machine of Goodfellow, Hilley, Harley, Gray and McInnes had done it again.
Only a short four years later the club's ultimate agony began. One dismal chapter of events followed another, until season 1965/66 found Thirds kicking off in the Second Division, having been relegated as a consequence of their most disastrous season ever, bringing the club only three wins from 34 matches in the league.
There followed yet another two seasons of mediocrity and discontent, ending in the humiliating defeat at Boghead Park when Dumbarton recorded a 5-1 score line, on Friday, 28th April 1967 (the final Thirds goal was scored by future Airdrie and Hearts star Drew Busby). This game ended the football involvement of Thirds, as a senior professional club.
The following months brought a Board of Trade investigation, revealing constant player squabbles and bitter internal struggles for power. These events finally took their toll and eventually a liquidator was appointed. Shortly after this move the dreaded announcement was made.


In 1758 he published the Tableau économique (Economic Table), which provided the foundations of the ideas of the Physiocrats. This was perhaps the first work to attempt to describe the workings of the economy in an analytical way, and as such can be viewed as one of the first important contributions to economic thought.
The publications in which Quesnay expounded his system were the following: two articles, on "Fermiers" and on "Grains", in the Encyclopédie of Diderot and D'Alembert (1756, 1757); a discourse on the law of nature in the Physiocratie of Dupont de Nemours (1768); Maximes générales de gouvernement economique d'un royaume agricole (1758), and the simultaneously published Tableau économique avec son explication, ou extrait des économies royales de Sully (with the celebrated motto, Pauvres paysans, pauvre royaume; pauvre royaume, pauvre roi); Dialogue sur le commerce et les travaux des artisans; and other minor pieces.
The Tableau économique, though on account of its dryness and abstract form it met with little general favor, may be considered the principal manifesto of the school. It was regarded by the followers of Quesnay as entitled to a place amongst the foremost products of human wisdom, and is named by the elder Mirabeau, in a passage quoted by Adam Smith, as one of the three great inventions which have contributed most to the stability of political societies, the other two being those of writing and of money. Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, and the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order. It follows from Quesnay's theoretic views that the one thing deserving the solicitude of the practical economist and the statesman is the increase of the net product; and he infers also what Smith afterwards affirmed, on not quite the same ground, that the interest of the landowner is strictly and indissolubly connected with the general interest of the society. A small edition de luxe of this work, with other pieces, was printed in 1758 in the Palace of Versailles under the king's immediate supervision, some of the sheets, it is said, having been pulled by the royal hand. Already in 1767 the book had disappeared from circulation, and no copy of it is now procurable; but, the substance of it has been preserved in the Ami des hommes of Mirabeau, and the Physiocratie of Dupont de Nemours.
His economic writings are collected in the 2nd vol. of the Principaux économistes, published by Guillaumin, Paris, with preface and notes by Eugène Daire; also his OEuvres économiques et philosophiques were collected with an introduction and note by August Oncken (Frankfort, 1888); a facsimile reprint of the Tableau économique, from the original MS., was published by the British Economic Association (London, 1895). His other writings were the article "Évidence" in the Encyclopédie, and Recherches sur l'évidence des vérites geometriques, with a Projet de nouveaux éléments de géometrie, 1773. Quesnay's Eloge was pronounced in the Academy of Sciences by Grandjean de Fouchy (see the Recueil of that Academy, 1774, p. 134). See also F.J. Marmontel, Mémoires; Mémoires de Mme. du Hausset; H. Higgs, The Physiocrats (London, 1897).

Francois Quesney Chinese influences


Portsmouth North is a borough constituency which elects one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, by the first past the post voting system.

Portsmouth North (UK Parliament constituency) Boundaries
The constituency was created in 1918 when the larger Portsmouth constituency was split into three divisions: Central, North and South.
It was abolsihed for the 1950 general election and replaced by a new Portsmouth West constituency, but re-established for the February 1974 general election.


Members of Parliament

Constituency created (1918) MPs 1918-1950

Constituency recreated (1974)


The Fortifications of London are extensive and mostly well maintained. Today, with the threat of invasion a thing of the past, many of Inner London's fortifications and defenses are tourist attractions, notably the Tower of London.

Fortifications of London History of London's fortifications
this list is incomplete

London Wall
Tower of London
Montfichet's Castle
Baynard's Castle


Rex Stout, full name Rex Todhunter Stout, (December 1, 1886 - October 27, 1975) was an American writer best known as the creator of the larger-than-life fictional detective Nero Wolfe, described by reviewer Will Cuppy as "that Falstaff of detectives."

Stout was born in Noblesville, Indiana, but shortly after that his Quaker parents, John Wallace Stout and Lucetta Elizabeth Todhunter Stout, moved their family (nine children in all) to Kansas.
His father was a teacher who encouraged his son to read, and Rex had read the entire Bible twice by the time he was four years old. He was the state spelling bee champion at age 13. Stout was educated at Topeka High School, Kansas, and later at University of Kansas, Lawrence.
His sister, Ruth Stout, also authored several books on no-work gardening and some social commentaries.
He served from 1906 to 1908 in the U.S. Navy (as a yeoman on President Teddy Roosevelt's official yacht) and then spent about the next four years working at about thirty different jobs (in six states), including cigar store clerk, while he sold poems, stories, and articles to various magazines.
It was not his writing but his invention of a school banking system in about 1916 that gave him enough money to travel in Europe extensively. About 400 U.S. schools adopted his system for keeping track of the money school children saved in accounts at school, and he was paid royalties. Also in 1916, Stout married Fay Kennedy of Topeka, Kansas. They separated in 1933 and Stout married in the same year Pola Hoffman of Vienna, Austria.

Early life
Stout started his literary career in the 1910s writing for the pulps, publishing romance, adventure, and some borderline detective stories. Rex Stout's first stories appeared among others in All-Story Magazine. He sold articles and stories to a variety of magazines, and became a full-time writer in 1927. Stout lost the money he had made as a businessman in 1929.
In Paris in 1929 he wrote his first book, How Like a God, an unusual psychological story written in the second person. During the course of his career Stout mastered a variety of literary forms, including the short story, the novel, and science fiction, among them a pioneering political thriller, The President Vanishes (1934).
After he returned to the U.S. Stout turned to writing detective fiction. The first was Fer-de-Lance, which introduced Nero Wolfe and his assistant Archie Goodwin. The novel was published by Farrar & Rinehart in October 1934, and in abridged form as Point of Death in The American Magazine (November 1934). In 1937, Stout created Dol Bonner, a female private detective who would reappear in his Nero Wolfe stories and who is an early and significant example of the woman PI as fictional protagonist, in a novel called The Hand in the Glove. After 1938 Stout focused solely on the mystery field. Stout continued writing the Wolfe series -- at least one adventure per year -- until his death in 1975.
During WWII Stout cut back on his detective writing, joined the Fight for Freedom organization, and wrote propaganda. He hosted three weekly radio shows, and coordinated the volunteer services of American writers to help the war effort. After the war Stout returned to writing Nero Wolfe novels, and took up the role of gentleman farmer on his estate at High Meadows in Brewster, north of New York City. He served as president of the Authors Guild and of the Mystery Writers of America, which in 1959 presented Stout with the Grand Master Award — the pinnacle of achievement in the mystery field.
Stout was a longtime friend of the British humorist P. G. Wodehouse, writer of the Jeeves novels and short stories. Each was a fan of the other's work, and there are evident parallels between their characters and techniques. Wodehouse contributed the foreword to Rex Stout: A Majesty's Life, the 2002 reissue of John McAleer's Edgar Award-winning 1977 biography of the author.

Raised with a powerful social conscience, Stout served on the original board of the American Civil Liberties Union and helped start the radical magazine The New Masses during the 1920s. During the Great Depression, he was an enthusiastic supporter of the New Deal. During World War II, he worked with the advocacy group Friends of Democracy and figured prominently on the Writers War Board, particularly in support of the embryonic United Nations. He lobbied for Franklin D. Roosevelt to accept a fourth term as President. When the war ended, Stout became active in the United World Federalists.
Stout was active in liberal causes. When the anti-Communist hysteria of the late 1940s and 1950s began, Stout found himself targeted by members of the American Legion. He ignored a subpoena from the House Un-American Activities Committee at the height of the McCarthy era.
In later years Stout alienated some readers with his hawkish stance on the Vietnam War and with the contempt for Communism expressed in his works.

Public activities
Rex Stout was one of many American writers closely watched by J. Edgar Hoover's FBI, journalist Herbert Mitgang discovered when he requested Stout's file for his 1988 book, Dangerous Dossiers:
A dozen years after Rex Stout's death, the FBI did not easily give up his personal file under the Freedom of Information Act. Of 301 pages that were reviewed, only 183 pages were released to me, and these were heavily censored. ... Stout's name in the FBI files reached back to his beginnings as an author, but what particularly irked the bureau and possibly other government agencies occurred during the McCarthy era when he served as president of the Authors League...
Stout's faithful readers knew him best as the genial author of detective novels featuring Nero Wolfe, gourmet, connoisseur and orchid grower, who, with the help of his assistant, Archie Goodwin, could solve crimes without leaving his Manhattan brownstone. The Federal Bureau of Investigation files show that J. Edgar Hoover considered Stout anything but genial: as a enemy of the FBI, as a Communist or a tool of Communist-dominated groups, someone whose novels and mail had to be watched, and whose involvement with professional writers organizations was not above suspicion. In the vague, bizarre phrase of one of the documents in his dossier, Stout was described as 'an alleged radical' ...
J. Edgar Hoover himself and the FBI's powerful publicity machine came down hard on Stout in 1965 when his novel, The Doorbell Rang, was published by the Viking Press. About one hundred pages in Stout's file are devoted to this novel, the FBI's panicky response to it, and the attempt to retaliate against the author for writing it.

Stout and the FBI

Nero Wolfe books by Rex Stout
Rex Stout's Nero Wolfe novellas are listed below in order of first appearance.

"Bitter End" (1940) — Rex Stout's rewrite of Bad for Business, a novel that featured Tecumseh Fox, begins with Nero Wolfe vowing to find the person responsible for adulterating a commercial liver pate he has just spit in Archie's face. Originally printed in the November 1940 issue of The American Magazine, "Bitter End" saw its first book publication in Corsage: A Bouquet of Rex Stout and Nero Wolfe (James A. Rock & Co., 1977), a posthumous collection edited by Michael Bourne (see Books about Rex Stout and Nero Wolfe).
"Black Orchids" (1941) — Curiosity about the black orchids grown by millionaire Lewis Hewitt compels an envious Nero Wolfe to attend New York's annual flower show.
"Cordially Invited to Meet Death" (1942) — High-society party arranger Bess Huddleston hires Wolfe to investigate anonymous letters, sent to her clients, claiming that she's spreading rumors about them.
"Not Quite Dead Enough" (1942) — How Archie joined Army Intelligence in WWII and got Wolfe involved in it.
"Booby Trap" (1944) — Another story about Archie in uniform, this time involving attempts by the munitions industry to bribe Congress in order to steal industrial secrets for use after the war.
"Help Wanted, Male" (1945) — An anonymous threat leads Wolfe to take unusual steps to prevent his own murder.
"Instead of Evidence" (1946) — Certain that his partner is about to murder him, the owner of a novelty company retains Wolfe to keep him from getting away with it.
"Before I Die" (1947) — Mobster Dazy Perrit comes to Wolfe for help in stopping a blackmailer.
"Man Alive" (1947) — A high-fashion designer consults Wolfe after she sees her uncle — believed to have committed suicide a year before — in disguise and in the audience at one of her shows.
"Bullet for One" (1948) — An industrial designer is shot to death while riding horseback in Central Park.
"Omit Flowers" (1948) — As a favor for his oldest friend Marko Vukcic, Wolfe takes the case of Virgil Pompa, a chef who traded his genius for a high-paying job as the supervisor of a restaurant chain. He is in jail, charged with murder. Archie begins the story with the statement, "In my opinion it was one of Nero Wolfe's neatest jobs, and he never got a nickel for it."
"Door to Death" (1949) — When orchid nurse Theodore Horstmann leaves the brownstone indefinitely to tend to his sick mother, Nero Wolfe goes out — in the snow and on foot — into the raging wilds of Westchester to find a replacement. He and Archie find a corpse in the greenhouse, as well.
"The Gun with Wings" (1949) — The police are satisfied that a top tenor at the Metropolitan Opera shot himself, but his widow and the man she hopes to marry know it was murder.
"Disguise for Murder" (1950) — The garden editor of the Gazette persuades Nero Wolfe to play host to the Manhattan Flower Club. While a couple of hundred people are upstairs in the plant rooms looking at Wolfe's orchids, a woman is strangled in his office.
"The Cop-Killer" (1951) — Tina and Carl Vardas, employees at the barbershop Archie patronizes, are questioned by a policeman after a hit-and-run. When the Vardases flee to the brownstone and desperately ask Archie for help, their overreaction proves to be justified.
"The Squirt and the Monkey" (1951) — Archie becomes involved with gunplay at the unconventional and uncomfortably warm home of a syndicated cartoonist.
"Home to Roost" (1952) — A young man is poisoned shortly after confiding to his aunt that his objectionable advocacy of the Communist party is a front for his undercover work for the FBI.
"This Won't Kill You" (1952) — Wolfe honors a guest's request by taking him to a World Series game at the Polo Grounds. After the Giants are trounced by the Red Sox, members of the team are found to have been drugged — and a body is discovered in the locker room. Wolfe solves the crime without leaving the ball park.
"Invitation to Murder" (1953) — A client hires Archie to assess the matrimonial intentions of his wealthy invalid brother-in-law. When Archie finds the client dead, he tricks Wolfe into leaving the brownstone and identifying the killer before the police are called in.
"The Zero Clue" (1953) — Leo Heller, a probability expert who has parlayed his math skills into celebrity, tries to consult Wolfe after he calculates that one of his clients has committed a serious crime. Wolfe refuses the case, but Archie — "who is subordinate only when it suits his temperament and convenience," Wolfe later complains — agrees to explore on his own.
"When a Man Murders..." (1954) — Caroline and Paul Aubry ask Wolfe's help after her first husband — reportedly killed in action in Korea — turns up alive in New York. Their marriage is at stake, along with a million-dollar inheritance.
"Die Like a Dog" (1954) — A Labrador retriever follows Archie home from a murder scene, and a volatile demirep is at the center of the crime.
"The Next Witness" (1955) — When their would-be client Leonard Ashe is on trial for murder, Wolfe and Archie are subpoenaed to testify as witnesses for the prosecution. Wolfe bolts from the courtroom when he realizes his testimony will convict an innocent man. He and Archie elude arrest for contempt — even spending the night at Saul Panzer's apartment — as they investigate the crime themselves.
"Immune to Murder" (1955) — Wolfe is invited by the State Department, at the behest of an ambassador from an oil-rich country, to cook a special meal for him at an oil baron's private retreat in the Adirondacks. This naturally results in a death to investigate.
"A Window for Death" (1956) — A wealthy prospector returns home after a 20-year absence. He contracts pneumonia and, despite medical care, dies in his bed, bracketed by two empty hot water bottles. His brother suspects homicide and the family hires Wolfe to decide whether the police should be brought in.
"Too Many Detectives" (1956) — Wolfe and Archie are called to Albany, along with other licensed private detectives in New York, when there are complaints about how lax the licensing of detectives in the state is and how the detectives violate the rights of private citizens by tapping their phones.
"Christmas Party" (1957) — Archie goes to a holiday gathering where the host toasts the season with a poisoned glass of Pernod.
"Easter Parade" (1957) — When Wolfe sends him to photograph the uniquely colored orchid that will be worn in the Easter Parade, Archie snaps a murder scene.
"Fourth of July Picnic" (1957) — One of a set of fine knives is put to use at a restaurant workers union picnic where Wolfe has agreed to speak. The story is notable for the autobiographical sketches Wolfe and Archie share with the principal suspects gathered at Saul Panzer's apartment.
"Murder Is No Joke" (1958, expanded and serialized as "Frame-Up for Murder") — The sister of a fashionable designer asks Wolfe to ascertain what mysterious hold a woman from her brother's past has over him. When she arranges for Wolfe to speak to the woman by telephone, he and Archie hear a murder on the other end of the line.
"Method Three for Murder" (1960) — After discovering a body in the back seat, Mina Holt drives the taxi she has borrowed for the evening to 918 West 35th Street. She walks up the front steps of the brownstone just as Archie is walking down — having just told Nero Wolfe that he's quit.
"Poison à la Carte" (1960) — Wolfe's chef, Fritz, is invited to prepare the annual dinner for the Ten for Aristology, "a group of ten men pursuing the ideal of perfection in food and drink." Wolfe and Archie are guests at the table when one of the ten becomes acutely ill during the meal and soon dies of arsenic poisoning. Wolfe's self-esteem is injured, he believes that Fritz has been humiliated, and he resolves to determine which of the servers hired for the dinner is the guilty party.
"The Rodeo Murder" (1960) — A party at Lily Rowan's Park Avenue penthouse includes a roping contest between some cowboy friends, with a silver-trimmed saddle as the prize. One of the contestants is at a disadvantage when his rope is missing. When it is found wound more than a dozen times around the neck of the chief backer of the World Series Rodeo, Lily asks Wolfe to sort out the murder.
"Counterfeit for Murder" (1961) — Wolfe and Archie encounter the Treasury Department when the owner of a rooming house comes to the brownstone with a large packet of counterfeit bills that she's found hidden on a bookshelf.
"Death of a Demon" (1961) — A blackmailer hosts a dinner party for his victims, whom he torments by dropping hints about their secrets. The blackmailer is murdered shortly thereafter, and the police arrest his wife, Wolfe's client.
"Kill Now — Pay Later" (1961) — Wolfe's aging Greek bootblack is accused of murder.
"Eeny Meeny Murder Mo" (1962) — Waiting in Wolfe's office for Archie to return from the plant rooms, a legal secretary is strangled with Wolfe's own necktie.
"Blood Will Tell" (1963) — Archie receives a blood-stained tie in the mail from the owner of a small walk-up apartment building in lower Manhattan, who also lives on the top floor. Archie investigates, only to find yet another dead body.
"Murder Is Corny" (1964) — A female acquaintance of Archie's implicates him in a murder but seeks his assistance in getting herself out of the mess.
"Assault on a Brownstone" (1959, published 1985, posthumous) — The first draft of "Counterfeit for Murder" Nero Wolfe novellas by Rex Stout

I frowned back. "You cramp it. Or Stout. Let him earn his ten per cent. Dictate it."
Archie loses the argument and condenses their views on the book, which concerns the case against Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.

The Nero Wolfe Cookbook, with the editors of Viking Press (1973) — The cuisine and world of Nero Wolfe are brought to life in a wealth of recipes and pertinent quotes from the corpus, illustrated by vintage New York City photographs by John Muller, Andreas Feininger and others. Chapters include "Breakfast in the Old Brownstone"; "Luncheon in the Dining Room"; "Warm-Weather Dinners"; "Cold-Weather Dinners"; "Desserts"; "The Perfect Dinner for the Perfect Detective"; "The Relapse"; "Snacks"; "Guests, Male and Female"; "Associates for Dinner"; "Fritz Brenner"; "Dishes Cooked by Others"; "Rusterman's Restaurant"; "Nero Wolfe Cooks"; and "The Kanawha Spa Dinner". Hardcover ISBN 0670505994 / Paperback ISBN 1888952245. "For a number of years Rex Stout had been prodded by friends ... to tackle a bit of hard work at last by writing out the recipes that make the reader's mouth water when they should be thrall to the dry fare of reason. ... The task was accomplished and now the secret of saucisse minuit is out -- with a couple hundred others. The organization of the book is excellent too ..."
"Why Nero Wolfe Likes Orchids" [1], Life (April 19, 1963) — Concluding a feature story titled "The Orchid" that was photographed by Alfred Eisenstaedt, Archie Goodwin "investigates and explains the deep satisfactions of his boss's orchid-fixation." (The article was reprinted in Corsage" A Bouquet of Rex Stout and Nero Wolfe, edited by Michael Bourne.)
"The Case of the Spies Who Weren't," Ramparts (January 1966) — Archie Goodwin reports that the previous evening Nero Wolfe and "Rex Stout, my literary agent" filled 27 pages in his notebook with their discussion of Invitation to an Inquest by Walter and Miriam Schneir, a recently published book that they are reviewing for Ramparts magazine. Since their review must be fewer than 3,000 words, Wolfe frowns and orders Archie to "Contract it. Cramp it." Other Nero Wolfe works by Rex Stout

Her Forbidden Knight (1913)
Under the Andes (1914)
A Prize for Princes (1914)
The Great Legend (1916)
How Like a God (1929)
Seed on the Wind (1930)
Golden Remedy (1931)
Forest Fire (1933)
The President Vanishes (1934)
O Careless Love! (1935)
The Hand in the Glove (1937) — featuring Dol Bonner
Mr. Cinderella (1938)
Red Threads (1939) — featuring Inspector Cramer
Mountain Cat (1939), always republished as The Mountain Cat Murders — a non-series mystery
Double for Death (1939) — a mystery featuring Tecumseh Fox
Bad for Business (1940) — a mystery featuring Tecumseh Fox
The Broken Vase (1941) — a mystery featuring Tecumseh Fox
Alphabet Hicks (1941), a mystery republished as The Sound of Murder. Alphabet Hicks is featured in one additional story, "In His Own Hand," which first appeared in Manhunt magazine (April 1955) and has been reprinted in anthologies under the titles, "By His Own Hand" and "Curtain Line."
The Illustrious Dunderheads (1942, editor)
Rue Morgue No. 1 (1946; editor, with Louis Greenfield) — Anthology of 19 mystery stories
Eat, Drink, and Be Buried (1956; editor) — Anthology of mystery stories. British edition titled For Tomorrow We Die(1958) omitted three stories.
Justice Ends at Home, and Other Stories (1977; edited by John McAleer) — Posthumous collection of 16 short stories written between 1912 and 1917 Other works by Rex Stout

Anderson, David R., Rex Stout (1984, Frederick Ungar; Hardcover ISBN 080442005X / Paperback ISBN 0804460094). Study of the Nero Wolfe series.
Baring-Gould, William S., Nero Wolfe of West Thirty-fifth Street (1969, Viking Press; ISBN 0140061940). Fanciful biography. Reviewed in Time, March 21, 1969 ("The American Holmes" [2]).
Bourne, Michael, Corsage: A Bouquet of Rex Stout and Nero Wolfe (1977, James A. Rock & Co., Publishers; Hardcover ISBN 0918736005 / Paperback ISBN 0918736013). Posthumous collection produced in a numbered limited edition of 276 hardcovers and 1,500 softcovers. Shortly before his death Rex Stout authorized the editor to include the first Nero Wolfe novella, "Bitter End" (1940), which had not been republished in his own novella collections. and concludes with the first and only book publication of "Why Nero Wolfe Likes Orchids," an article by Rex Stout that first appeared in Life (April 19, 1963).
Darby, Ken, The Brownstone House of Nero Wolfe, as Told by Archie Goodwin (1983, Little, Brown and Company; ISBN 0316172804). Full-length book about Wolfe's house, including several elaborate floor plans.
Gotwald, Rev. Frederick G., The Nero Wolfe Handbook (1985; revised 1992, 2000). Self-published anthology of essays edited by a longtime member of The Wolfe Pack.
Kaye, Marvin, The Archie Goodwin Files (2005, Wildside Press; ISBN 1557424845). Selected articles from The Wolfe Pack publication The Gazette, edited by a charter member.
Kaye, Marvin, The Nero Wolfe Files (2005, Wildside Press; ISBN 0809544946). Selected articles from The Wolfe Pack publication The Gazette, edited by a charter member.
McAleer, John, Rex Stout: A Biography (1977, Little, Brown and Company; ISBN 0316553409). Foreword by P.G. Wodehouse. Winner of the Mystery Writers of America's Edgar Award for Best Critical/Biographical Work in 1978. Reissued as Rex Stout: A Majesty's Life (2002, James A. Rock & Co., Publishers; Hardcover ISBN 0918736439 / Paperback ISBN 0918736447).
McAleer, John, Royal Decree: Conversations with Rex Stout (1983, Pontes Press, Ashton, MD). Published in a numbered limited edition of 1,000 copies.
McBride, O.E., Stout Fellow: A Guide Through Nero Wolfe's World (2003, iUniverse; Hardcover ISBN 0595657168 / Paperback ISBN 0595278612). Pseudonymous self-published homage.
Mitgang, Herbert, Dangerous Dossiers: Exposing the Secret War Against America's Greatest Authors (1988, Donald I. Fine, Inc.; ISBN 1556110774). Chapter 10 is titled "Seeing Red: Rex Stout."
Symons, Julian, Great Detectives: Seven Original Investigations (1981, Abrams; ISBN 0810909782). Illustrated by Tom Adams. "We quiz Archie Goodwin in his den and gain a clue to the ultimate fate of Nero Wolfe" in a chapter titled "In Which Archie Goodwin Remembers."
Townsend, Guy M., Rex Stout: An Annotated Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1980, Garland Publishing; ISBN 0824094794). Associate editors John McAleer, Judson Sapp and Arriean Schemer. Definitive publication history.
Van Dover, J. Kenneth, At Wolfe's Door: The Nero Wolfe Novels of Rex Stout (1991, Borgo Press, Mitford Series; second edition 2003, James A. Rock & Co., Publishers; Hardcover ISBN 091873651X / Paperback ISBN 0918736528). Bibliography, reviews and essays. Books about Rex Stout and Nero Wolfe

The adaptations section of the article on Nero Wolfe, and the article about the A&E TV series A Nero Wolfe Mystery (2001–2002), provide detailed information about the various film, radio and television adaptations of Rex Stout's Nero Wolfe stories.

Nero Wolfe adaptations
Stout's 1937 novel The Hand in the Glove was adapted for an NBC TV movie titled Lady Against the Odds [3], which aired April 20, 1992. Crystal Bernard starred as Dol Bonner; Annabeth Gish costarred as Sylvia Raffray. Bradford May, who also directed, received an Emmy Award for outstanding individual achievement in cinematography. The telefilm was previewed by The Hollywood Reporter:
It's wonderfully scripted, well-acted and thoroughly enjoyable to watch. It features some terrific costumes, great cars, realistic backdrops and stunning photography. Unfortunately, Lady Against the Odds is constructed around a rather standard-issue plot line, and that keeps it from being quite as great as it otherwise might have been.
Fortunately, it doesn't spoil the overall fun.
It's a period drama that manages to stay in character throughout, setting its murder-mystery theme in front of a society at war circa 1943. It centers around two young "dames" trying to do their part on the home front as Los Angeles private eyes despite a wary police department and disapproving family. ... What makes this project so interesting is how it plays like such a lighthearted romp despite its serious, murderous themes. It gives a nod in dialogue and visuals to those old gumshoe films of the '40s, then has fun with itself. The ending is a bit heavy-handed given the overall nature of this project and doesn't quite fit in terms of tone, but it does add some sobriety to an otherwise high-style production.
The film holds up in large part due to the solid ensemble cast ... led by Crystal Bernard and Annabeth Gish, who deliver absolutely delightful performances as the two lady gumshoes.

Lady Against the Odds (NBC)
In an interview printed in Royal Decree (1983), Rex Stout's official biographer John McAleer asked the author if there were any chance of Hollywood ever making a good Nero Wolfe movie. "I don't know," Stout replied. "I suppose so. They made a movie of another story I wrote — The President Vanishes. I hate like hell to admit it but it was better than the book, I think."
Written after Fer-de-Lance but published immediately before the first Nero Wolfe novel, The President Vanishes was adapted for the screen by Lynn Starling, Carey Wilson and Cedric Worth, with uncredited contributions by Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur.

Rex Stout The President Vanishes (Paramount)

Rex Stout Archive at Boston College
Rex Stout appeared in the December 9, 1956, episode of Omnibus, a cultural anthology series that epitomized the golden age of television. Hosted by Alistair Cooke, "The Fine Art of Murder" was a 40-minute segment described by Time magazine as "a homicide as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Edgar Allan Poe [and] Rex Stout would variously present it."