Ralph Linton (Philadelphia, 27 February 1893 - New Haven, 24 December 1953) was one of the best-known American anthropologists of the mid-twentieth century, and is particularly remembered for his works The Study of Man (1936) and The Tree of Culture (1955). One of Linton's major contributions to anthropology was finding a distinction between status and role.
Linton was born into a family of Quaker restaurant entrepreneurs in Philadelphia in 1893 and entered Swarthmore College in 1911. He was an indifferent student and resisted his father's pressures to prepare himself for the life of a professional. He grew interested in archaeology after participating in a field school in the southwest and took a year off of his studies to participate in another archaeological excavation in Guatemala. Having found a strong focus he graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1915.
Although Linton became a prominent anthropologist, his graduate education took place largely at the periphery of the discipline. He attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned his masters degree studying with Frank Speck while undertaking additional archaeological field work in New Jersey and New Mexico. He was admitted to a Ph.D. program at Columbia University thereafter, but did not become close to Franz Boas, the doyen of anthropology in that era. When America entered World War I, Linton enlisted and served in France. Shortly after his return to the United States, he transferred from Columbia to Harvard, where he studied with Earnest Hooton, Alfred Tozzer, and Roland Dixon.
After a year of classes at Harvard, Linton proceeded to do more fieldwork, first Mesa Verde and then as a member of a research team lead by E.S.C. Handy under the auspices of the Bishop Museum to the Marquesas. While in the Pacific, his focus shifted from archaeology to cultural anthropology, although he would retain a keen interest in material culture and 'primitive' art throughout his life. He returned from the Marquesas in 1922 and eventually received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1925.
Linton used his Harvard connections to secure a position at the Field Museum of Chicago after his return from the Marquesas. His official position was as Curator of American Indian materials. He continued working on digs in Ohio which he had first begun as a graduate student, but also began working through the museum's archival material on the Pawnee and published data collected by others in a series of articles and museum bulletins. While at the Field Museum he worked with illustrator and future children's book artist and author Holling Clancy Holling. Between 1925 and 1927, Linton undertook an extensive collecting trip to Madagascar for the field museum, exploring the western end of the Austronesian diaspora after having studied the eastern end of this culture in the Marquesas. He did his own fieldwork there as well, and the book that resulted, The Tanala: A Hill Tribe of Madagascar (1933), was the most detailed ethnography he would publish.
On his return to the United States, Linton took a position at the University of Wisconsin, where the Department of Sociology had expanded to include an anthropology unit. Linton thus served as the beginning of what would later become a separate department. Several of his students went on to become important anthropologists, such as Clyde Kluckhohn, Marvin Opler, and Sol Tax. Up to this point, Linton had been primarily a researcher in a rather romantic vein, and his years at Wisconsin were the period in which he developed his ability to teach and publish as a theoretician. This fact, combined with his penchant for popular writing and his intellectual encounter with Radcliffe-Brown (then at the University of Chicago), led to the publication of his textbook The Study of Man (1936). It was also during this period that he married this third wife, Adelin Hohlfeld, who worked as his secretary and editor as well as his collaborator -- many of the popular pieces published jointly by them (such as Halloween Through Twenty Centuries) were in fact entirely written by Adelin Hohlfield.
The Study of Man established Linton as one of anthropology's premier theorists, particularly amongst sociologists who worked outside of the Boasian mainstream. As a result, Linton was invited to succeed Boas as the chair of the department anthropology at Columbia in 1937. His appointment was contentious -- the Boasian heir-apparent was Ruth Benedict and Linton's appointment by the president met considerable resistance within the department. Throughout this early period Linton became interested in the problem of acculturation, working with Robert Redfield and Melville Herskovits on a prestigious Social Science Research Council subcommittee of the Committee on Personality and Culture. The result was a seminal jointly-authored piece entitled Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation (1936). Linton also obtained money from the Works Progress Administration for students to produce work which studied acculturation. The volume Acculturation in Seven American Indian Tribes is an example of the work in this period, and Linton's contributions to the volume remain his most influential writings on acculturation. Linton's interest in culture and personality also expressed itself in the form of a seminar he organized with Abraham Kardiner at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute.
When World War II broke out, Linton became involved in war-planning and his thoughts on the war and the role of the United States (and American Anthropology) could be seen in several works of the post-war period, most notably The Science of Man in the World Crisis (1945) and Most of the World. It was during the war that Linton also undertook a long trip to South America, where he experienced a coronary occlusion that left him in precarious health.
After the war Linton moved to Yale University, a center for anthropologists such as George Murdock who had collaborated with the US government. He taught there from 1946 to 1953, where continued to publish on culture and personality. It was during this period that he also began writing The Tree of Culture, an ambitious global overview of human culture. He died of complications relating to his trip in South America on Christmas Eve, 1953. His wife completed The Tree of Culture which went on to become a popular textbook.
Thomas Henry Huxley FRS (4 May 1825 Ealing – 29 June 1895 Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English biologist, known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.
Huxley's famous 1860 debate with the Lord Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution, and in his own career. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley also debated on whether man was closely related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism, and was undecided about natural selection, but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin. He was instrumental in developing scientific education in Britain, and fought against the more extreme versions of religious tradition.
Huxley used the term 'agnostic' to describe his own views on religion, a term whose use has continued to the present day, and which throws light on his demanding criteria for proof in science (see Thomas Henry Huxley and agnosticism).
Huxley had little schooling, and taught himself almost everything he knew. Remarkably, he became perhaps the finest comparative anatomist of the second half of the nineteenth century. He worked first on invertebrates, clarifying the relationships between groups that were previously little understood. Later, he worked more on vertebrates, especially on the relationship between man and the apes. Another of his important conclusions was that birds evolved from dinosaurs, namely, small carnivorous theropods. This view is widely held today.
The tendency has been for this fine anatomical work to be overshadowed by his energetic controversial activity in favour of evolution, and by his extensive public work on scientific education, both of which had significant effect on society in Britain and elsewhere.
Huxley, born in Ealing, a small village in Middlesex (now a prosperous suburb in west London), was the second youngest of eight children of George Huxley, a maths teacher at Ealing School until it closed, putting the family into financial difficulties. Like some other British scientists of the nineteenth century (Alfred Russel Wallace comes to mind) Huxley was brought up in a literate middle-class family which became short of money. As a result he left school at 10, after only two years of formal schooling.
Despite this unenviable start, Huxley possessed the most remarkable determination. He became one of the great autodidacts of the nineteenth century (again, like Wallace). He made himself an expert first on invertebrates, and later on vertebrates, all self-taught. He was skilled in drawing, and did many of the illustrations for his publications on marine invertebrates. In his teens he taught himself German, eventually becoming fluent and used by Charles Darwin as a translator of scientific material in German. Later he learnt Latin and enough Greek to read Aristotle in the original. In his debates and writing on science and religion his grasp of theology was better than most of his clerical opponents. So, a boy who left school at ten became one of the most knowledgeable men in Britain.
Aged 20, Huxley was too young to apply to the Royal College of Surgeons for a licence to practice, yet he was 'deep in debt'.
Voyage of the Rattlesnake
Huxley effectively resigned from the navy (by refusing to return to active service) and, in July 1854, he became Professor of Natural History at the Royal School of Mines and naturalist to the Geological Survey in the following year. In addition, he was Fullerian Professor at the Royal Institution 1855–58 and 1865–67; Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons 1863–69; President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1869–1870; and, later, President of the Royal Society 1883–85; and Inspector of Fisheries 1881–85.
The thirty-one years during which Huxley occupied the chair of natural history at the Royal School of Mines included work on vertebrate palaeontology and on many projects to advance the place of science in British life.
Among Huxley's most important work in this period was his continuing investigation of the relationship of man to other animals. For nearly a decade his research and lecturing was directed mainly to this topic, which led him directly into a clash with Richard Owen, a man widely disliked for his behaviour whilst also being admired for his capability. This struggle was to culminate in some severe defeats for the older man. Huxley's Croonian Lecture, delivered before the Royal Society in 1858 on The Theory of the Vertebrate Skull was the start. In this, he rejected Owen's view that the bones of the skull and the spine were homologous, an opinion previously held by Goethe and Lorenz Oken.
His classification of human races is fourfold: 1 Europeans 2 Mongolian 3 Negro (or Ethiopean) 4 Australian; each of these categories being broken down further into sub-sets. In fact all such anthropological classifications are put in the shade by our modern discovery that the genetic diversity of man in Africa is greater than exists in the rest of mankind put together. [see also Wiki page on race]
From 1870 onwards, Huxley was to some extent drawn away from scientific research by the claims of public duty. From 1862 to 1884 he served on eight Royal Commissions. From 1871 to 1880 he was a Secretary of the Royal Society and from 1883 to 1885 he was President. He was President of the Geological Society from 1868-1870. In 1870, he was President of the British Association at Liverpool and, in the same year was elected a member of the newly-constituted London School Board. He was made a Privy Councillor in 1892.
He was awarded the highest honours then open to British men of science: the Royal Society awarded him the Royal Medal in 1852, the Copley Medal in 1888 and the Darwin Medal in 1894; the Geological Society awarded him the Wollaston Medal in 1876; the Linnean Society awarded him the Linnean Medal in 1890. There were many other elections and appointments to eminent scientific bodies; these and his many academic awards are listed in the Life and Letters. He turned down many other appointments, notably the Linacre chair in zoology at Oxford and the Mastership of University College, Oxford. Balfour died whilst climbing in the Alps; he had just been appointed to a chair at Cambridge.
Public duties and awards
Huxley was originally not persuaded of 'development theory' as evolution was once called. We can see that in his savage review The authorship of this latter review was not known for sure until Wilberforce's son wrote his biography. So it can be said that, just as Darwin groomed Huxley, so Owen groomed Wilberforce; and both the proxies fought public battles on behalf of their principals as much as themselves.
chromolithograph by 'Ape' (Pellegrini)
Famously, Huxley responded to Wilberforce in the debate at the British Association meeting, on Saturday 30th June 1860 at the Oxford University Museum. He was joined at the debate by his and Darwin's friends Hooker and Lubbock, and they were opposed by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, and Robert FitzRoy, the captain of HMS Beagle. The chair for this debate was Darwins's former botany tutor John Stevens Henslow.
Wilberforce had a track record against evolution as far back as the previous Oxford B.A. meeting in 1847 when he attacked Chambers' Vestiges. For the more challenging task of opposing the Origin, and the implication that man descended from apes (theme continued from the previous day) he had been assiduously coached by Richard Owen—Owen stayed with him the night before the debate (Desmond & Moore p493). On the day Wilberforce repeated some of the arguments from his Quarterly Review article (written but not yet published), then ventured onto slippery ground. His famous jibe at Huxley (as to whether H. was descended from an ape on his mother's side or his father's side) was probably unplanned, and certainly unwise. Huxley's reply to the effect that he would rather be descended from an ape than a man who misused his great talents—the exact wording is not certain—was widely recounted in pamphlets and a spoof play.
Other friends of Darwin spoke also; Hooker especially thought he had made the best points. The general view was and still is that Huxley got the better of the exchange but there are dissenting voices, and Wilberforce himself thought he had done quite well. In the absence of a verbatim report these differing perceptions cannot be judged fairly; Huxley wrote a detailed account for Darwin, a letter which does not survive.
Debate with Wilberforce
Although Darwin did not publish his Descent of Man until 1871, the general debate on this topic had started years before. A key event occurred in 1857 when Richard Owen presented (to the Linnean Society) his view that man was marked off from all other mammals by possessing features of the brain peculiar to the genus Homo. Having reached this (erroneous) opinion, Owen separated man from all other mammals in a subclass of its own. This paper was reprinted in 1863 as chapter 2 of Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (his most influential book), but in the 1894 volume 7 in his Collected Essays the history of the Owen/Huxley debate was edited out. This extended debate, partly oral and partly in print, was a landmark in Huxley's career. It was highly important in asserting his dominance of comparative anatomy, and in the long run more influential in establishing evolution amongst biologists than was the debate with Wilberforce.
'I am Darwin's bulldog' said Huxley, and it is apt; the second half of Darwin's life was lived mainly within his family, and the younger, combative Huxley operated mainly out in the world at large. A letter from THH to Ernst Haekel (Nov 2 1871) goes "The dogs have been snapping at [Darwin's] heels too much of late."
Man and ape
Huxley was certainly not slavish in his dealings with Darwin. As shown in every biography, they had quite different and rather complementary characters. Important also, Darwin was a field naturalist, but Huxley was an anatomist, so there was a difference in their experience of nature. Lastly, Darwin's views on science were different from Huxley's views. For Darwin, natural selection was the best way to explain evolution because it explained a huge range of natural history facts and observations: it solved problems. Huxley, on the other hand, was an empiricist who trusted what he could see, and some things are not easily seen. With this in mind, one can appreciate the debate between them, Darwin writing his letters, Huxley never going quite so far as to say he thought Darwin was right.
Huxley's reservations on natural selection were of the type "until selection and breeding can be seen to give rise to varieties which are infertile with each other, natural selection cannot be proved". Huxley's resistance to Darwin's massaging and suasion is evidence of mental firmness; he may be Darwin's bulldog, but not his poodle! At least he went so far as to say that he knew of no better hypothesis.
In November 1864 Huxley succeeded in launching a dining club, the X Club, like-minded people working to advance the cause of science; not surprisingly, the club consisted of most of his closest friends. There were nine members, who decided at their first meeting that there should be no more. The members were: Huxley, John Tyndall, J. D. Hooker, John Lubbock (banker, biologist and cousin of Darwin), Herbert Spencer (social philosopher and sub-editor of the Economist), William Spottiswoode (mathematician and the Queen's Printer), Thomas Hirst (Professor of Physics at University College London), Edward Frankland (the new Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution) and George Busk, zoologist and palaeontologist (formerly surgeon for HMS Dreadnought). All except Spencer were Fellows of the Royal Society. There were also some quite significant satellites such as William Flower and George Rolleston, (Huxley protegées), and liberal clergyman Arthur Stanley, the Dean of Westminster. Guests such as Charles Darwin and Hermann von Helmholtz were entertained from time to time.
The X Club
When Huxley himself was young there were virtually no degrees in British universities in the biological sciences and few courses. Most biologists of his day were either self-taught, or took medical degrees. When he retired there were established chairs in biological disciplines in most universities, and a broad consensus on the curricula to be followed. Huxley was the single most influential person in this transformation.
In the early 1870s the Royal School of Mines moved to new quarters in South Kensington; ultimately it would become one of the constituent parts of Imperial College London. The move gave Huxley the chance to give more prominence to laboratory work in biology teaching, an idea suggested by practice in German universities. That must be part of the reason; indeed it does help to explain the stultifying nature of much school biology. But zoology as taught at all levels became far too much the product of one man.
Huxley was comfortable with comparative anatomy, at which he was the greatest master of the day. He was not an all-round naturalist like Darwin, who had shown clearly enough how to weave together detailed factual information and subtle arguments across the vast web of life. Huxley chose, in his teaching (and to some extent in his research) to take a more straightforward course, concentrating on his personal strengths.
School of Mines and Zoology
Huxley was also a major influence in the direction taken by British schools: in November 1870 he was voted onto the London School Board. Perhaps Lenin was right when he remarked (in Materialism and empirio-criticism) "In Huxley's case... agnosticism serves as a fig-leaf for materialism".
Schools and the Bible
Huxley's interest in education went still further than school and university classrooms; he made a great effort to reach interested adults of all kinds: after all, he himself was largely self-educated. There were his lecture courses for working men, many of which were published afterwards, and there was the use he made of journalism, partly to earn money but mostly to reach out to the literate public. For most of his adult life he wrote for periodicals—the Westminster Review, the Saturday Review, the Reader, the Pall Mall Gazette, Macmillan's Magazine, the Contemporary Review. Germany was still ahead in formal science education, but interested people in Victorian Britain could use their initiative and find out what was going on by reading periodicals and using the lending libraries.
The technique of printing his more popular lectures in periodicals which were sold to the general public was extremely effective. A good example was The physical basis of life, a lecture given in Edinburgh on November 8th, 1868. Its theme — that vital action is nothing more than "the result of the molecular forces of the protoplasm which displays it" — shocked the audience, though that was nothing compared to the uproar when it was published in the Fortnightly Review for February 1869. John Morley, the editor, said "No article that had appeared in any periodical for a generation had caused such a sensation". It was like "the stir that in a [former] epoch was made by Swift's Conduct of the Allies, or Burke's French Revolution" (Morley 1917 p90). The issue was reprinted seven times and protoplasm became a household word; Punch added 'Professor Protoplasm' to its other tags for him.
The topic had been stimulated by Huxley seeing the cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells, which is indeed a sensational sight. For these audiences Huxley's claim that this activity should not be explained by words such as vitality, but by the working of its constituent chemicals, was surprising and shocking. Today we would perhaps emphasise the extraordinary structural arrangement of those chemicals as the key to understanding what cells do, but little of that was known in the nineteenth century.
When the Archbishop of York thought this 'new philosophy' was based on August Comte's positivism, Huxley corrected him: "Comte's philosophy [is just] Catholicism minus Christianity" (Huxley 1893 vol 1 of Collected Essays Methods & Results 156). A later version was "[positivism is] sheer Popery with M. Comte in the chair of St Peter, and with the names of the saints changed." (lecture on The scientific aspects of positivism Huxley 1870 Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews p149). Huxley's dismissal of positivism damaged it so severely that Comte's ideas withered in Britain.
The following list is given by Leonard Huxley in his biography of his father (titles somewhat shortened here). The Royal Commission is the senior investigative forum in the British constitution. A rough analysis shows that five commissions involved science and scientific education; three involved medicine and three involved fisheries. Two were directed solely to Scotland and two to Ireland. Several involve difficult ethical and legal issues. All are directed partly or wholly towards the examination of possible changes to law and/or administrative practice.
He was also elected to two general Commissions on Ireland (which at that time referred to the whole island).
1862 Trawling for herrings on the coast of Scotland.
1865–65 Sea fisheries of the United Kingdom.
1870–71 The Contagious Diseases Acts.
1870–75 Scientific instruction and the advancement of science.
1876 The practice of subjugating live animals to scientific experiments (vivisection).
1876–78 The universities of Scotland.
1881–82 The Medical Acts. [i.e. the legal framework for medicine]
1884 Trawl, net and beam trawl fishing.
1866 On the Royal College of Science for Ireland.
1868 On science and art instruction in Ireland. Royal and other Commissions
See also: Huxley family
Pencil drawing from the National Portrait Gallery.
In 1855, he married Henrietta Anne Heathorn (1825–1915), an English emigrée whom he had met in Sydney. They kept correspondence until he was able to send for her. They had five daughters and three sons:
Huxley's relationship with his relatives and children were quite genial by the standards of the day—so long as they lived their lives in an honourable manner, which some did not. After his mother, his eldest sister Lizzie was the most important person in his life until his own marriage. He remained on good terms with his own children, which is more than can be said of many Victorian fathers. This excerpt from a letter to Jessie, his eldest daughter is full of affection:
The most famous descendents in the third generation are offspring of Leonard Huxley:
Sir Julian Huxley FRS, grandson (1887–1975, son of Leonard Huxley and Julia Arnold) was a notable evolutionary biologist, who promoted the idea of humanism and was the first Director of UNESCO. His work in zoology was broader even than his grandfather: it included ethology and wildlife conservation, genetics and development as well as evolution. His two sons were both scientists of note: Anthony Julian Huxley, a botanist, and Francis Huxley, an anthropologist.
Aldous Huxley, grandson, (1891–1963, son of Leonard Huxley and Julia Arnold) was a famous author (Chrome Yellow 1921, Brave New World 1932, Eyeless in Gaza 1936, Ape and Essence 1948, The Doors of Perception 1954).
Sir Andrew Huxley OM FRS, grandson (b 1917, son of Leonard Huxley and Roselind Bruce) won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1963 jointly for work on nerve impulses. Andrew is the second Huxley to become President of the Royal Society (1980–85).
Noel Huxley (1856–1860) died aged 4.
Jessie Oriana Huxley (1856–1927), married architect Fred Waller in 1877.
Marian Huxley (1859–1887) married artist John Collier in 1879.
Leonard Huxley (1860–1933) author.
Rachel Huxley (1862–1934) married civil engineer Alfred Eckersley in 1884, he died 1895.
Henrietta (Nettie) Huxley (1863–1940), married Harold Roller, travelled Europe as a singer.
Henry Huxley (1865–1946), became a fashionable general practitioner in London.
Ethel Huxley (1866–1941) married artist John Collier (widower of sister) in 1889.
"Dearest Jess, You are a badly used young person—you are; and nothing short of that conviction would get a letter out of your still worse used Pater, the bête noir of whose existence is letter-writing. Catch me discussing the Afghan question with you, you little pepper-pot! No, not if I know it..." [goes on nevertheless to give strong opinions of the Afghans, at that time causing plenty of trouble to the Indian Empire—see Second Anglo-Afghan War] "There, you plague—ever your affec. Daddy, THH." (letter Dec 7th 1878, Huxley L 1900) Family
Biographers have sometimes noted the occurrence of mental illness in the Huxley family. His father became "sunk in worse than childish imbecility of mind" contained this comment: "The direct result of this enquiry is... to prove that the laws of heredity are as applicable to the mental faculties as to the bodily faculties".
Mental problems in the family
Darwin's ideas and Huxley's controversies gave rise to many cartoons and satires. It was the debate about man's place in nature that roused such widespread comment: cartoons are so numerous as to be almost impossible to count; Darwin's head on a monkey's body is one of the visual clichés of the age. Three or four items of especial ripeness are:
Next HUXLEY replies That OWEN he lies And garbles his Latin quotation; That his facts are not new, His mistakes not a few, Detrimental to his reputation. To twice slay the slain By dint of the Brain (Thus HUXLEY concludes his review) Is but labour in vain, unproductive of gain, And so I shall bid you "Adieu"!
Say am I a man or a brother, Or only an anthropoid ape?
Policeman X — Huxley, your Worship, I take to be a young hand, but very vicious; but Owen I have seen before. He got into trouble with an old bone man, called Mantell, who never could be off complaining as Owen prigged his bones. People did say that the old man never got over it, and Owen worritted him to death; but I don't think it was so bad as that. Hears as Owen takes the chair at a crib in Bloomsbury. I don't think it will be a harmonic meeting altogether. And Huxley hangs out in Jermyn Street.
[Tom Huxley's 'low set' included Hooker 'in the green and vegetable line' and 'Charlie Darwin, the pigeon-fancier'; Owen's 'crib in Bloomsbury' was the British Museum, of which Natural History was but one department.]
An illustration by Linley Sambourne showed Huxley and Owen studying a captured water baby. In 1892 Thomas Henry Huxley's five-year-old grandson Julian saw this engraving and wrote his grandfather a letter asking:
Dear Grandpater – Have you seen a Waterbaby? Did you put it in a bottle? Did it wonder if it could get out? Could I see it some day? – Your loving Julian.
Huxley wrote back:
My dear Julian – I could never make sure about that Water Baby. I have seen Babies in water and Babies in bottles; the Baby in the water was not in a bottle and the Baby in the bottle was not in water. My friend who wrote the story of the Water Baby was a very kind man and very clever. Perhaps he thought I could see as much in the water as he did – There are some people who see a great deal and some who see very little in the same things. When you grow up I dare say you will be one of the great-deal seers, and see things more wonderful than the Water Babies where other folks can see nothing.
Monkeyana (Punch vol 40 18th May 1861). Signed 'Gorilla', this turned out to be by Sir Philip Egerton MP, amateur naturalist, fossil fish collector and — Richard Owen's patron! and the story includes a satire on the reaction to Darwin's theory, with all the main scientific participants appearing, including Richard Owen and Huxley. Satires
Abram, Abraham became
- By will divine
Let pickled Brian's name
- Be changed to Brine!
"I am Darwin's bulldog" coined by THH himself and so self-evidently apt that it was almost universally copied.
"How extremely stupid [of me] not to have thought of that" said in particular of the idea of natural selection. [versions in Life & Letters of CD and L&L of THH differ slightly as indicated]
"After all, it is as respectable to be modified ape as to be modified dirt" written in a letter to Dr Frederick Dyster 30th Jan 1859, i.e. before the publication of the Origin. [Huxley papers at Imperial College: HP 15.106]
"The Lord hath delivered him into mine hands" said to Sir Benjamin Brodie after Wilberforce's jibe in the Oxford debate. [L&L of THH Chapter 14]
"Life is too short to occupy oneself with the slaying of the slain more than once". Last of a series of exchanges when Owen repeated his claims about the Gorilla brain in a Royal Institution lecture. [Athenaeum 13 April 1861 p.498; Browne vol 2 p.159]
"The fact is that he (Richard Owen) made a prodigious blunder... and now his only chance is to be silent & let people forget the exposure!" THH to J.D. Hooker 27 April 1861 about Owen's view on human and ape brains; and of course Owen was not silent.
"Not far from the invention of fire... we must rank the invention of doubt." [Collected Essays vol 6, viii] Huxley
"I think his tone is much too vehement" [Charles Darwin in letter to Hooker about THH's Royal Institution lecture in 1854]
"Huxley gave the death-blow not only to Owen's theory of the skull but also to Owen's hitherto unchallenged prestige" Notes
Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2006), Thomas Henry Huxley, <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9041656/TH-Huxley>
Barr, Alan P, ed. (1997), Thomas Henry Huxley's place in science and letters: centenary essays, Georgia: Athens
Bibby, Cyril (1959), T.H. Huxley: scientist, humanist and educator, London: Watts
Bibby, Cyril (1972), Scientist Extraordinary: the life and work of Thomas Henry Huxley 1825–1895, Oxford: Pergamon
Browne, Janet (1995), Charles Darwin. vol 1: Voyaging, Cambridge University Press
Browne, Janet (2002), Charles Darwin. vol 2: The Power of Place, Cambridge University Press
Burkhardt, F et al (eds) (1984 onwards (continuing series)), The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Cambridge University Press
Clack, Jenny (2002), Gaining ground: the origin of tetrapods, Indiana
Clark, Ronald W. (1968), The Huxleys, London
Cronin, Helena (1991), The ant and the peacock: altruism and sexual selection from Darwin to today, Cambridge University Press
Darwin, Charles (1887), Darwin, Francis, ed., The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter, vol. 2, London: John Murray, <http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1452.2&viewtype=text&pageseq=1>.(The Autobiography of Charles Darwin)
Darwin, Charles & Alfred Russel Wallace, written at London, "On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection", Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 3 (9): (Read 1 July): 45–62, 1858.
Darwin, Francis & A.C. Seward (1903), More Letters of Charles Darwin. 2 vols, London: John Murray
Desmond, Adrian (1994), Huxley: vol 1 The Devil's Disciple, London: Michael Joseph, ISBN 0-7181-3641-1
Desmond, Adrian (1997), Huxley: vol 2 Evolution's high priest, London: Michael Joseph
Desmond, Adrian (1998), Huxley: vol 1 and 2, London: Penguin
Desmond, Adrian & James Moore (1991), Darwin, London: Joseph
Di Gregorio, Mario A (1984), T.H. Huxley's place in natural science, New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 0300030622
Duncan, David (1908), Life and Letters of Herbert Spencer. 2 vols, Michael Joseph
Eve, A.S. & C.H. Creasey (1945), Life and work of John Tyndall, London: Macmillan
Foster, Michael & E. Ray Lankester (1898-1903), The scientific memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley. 4 vols and supplement, London: Macmillan, ISBN 1432640119
Galton, Francis (1892), Hereditary Genius 2nd ed, London, pp. xix
Gould, Stephen Jay (1991), Bully for Brontosaurus, Random House
Holland, Linda Z (2007), "A chordate with a difference", Nature (UK: Nature Publishing Group) (no. 447/7141, pp. 153-155), ISSN 0028-0836
Huxley, Julian (1935), T.H. Huxley's diary of the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake, London: Chatto & Windus
Huxley, Leonard (1900), The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley. 2 vols 8vo, London: Macmillan
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1854), "Review of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, tenth edition", British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review (no. 13)
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1855), "On certain zological arguments commonly adduced in favour of the hypothesis of the progressive development of animal life in time", Proceedings of the Royal Institution 2 (1854–58)
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1859), The Oceanic Hydrozoa, London: The Ray Society, ISBN 0300030622
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1860a), "On species, and races and their origin", Proc. Roy. Inst. 1858-62 (no. III): 195
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1860b), "The origin of species", Westminster Review (no. April)
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1861), "On the zoological relations of man with the lower animals", Natural History Review (new series) (no. 1)
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1862a), On the fossil remains of Man, London: The Royal Society
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1862a), On the fossil remains of Man, London: The Royal Society
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1862b), On our knowledge of the causes of the phenomena of organic nature, London
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1863), Evidence as to Man's place in nature, London: Williams & Norwood
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1864), "Further remarks on the human remains from the Neanderthal", Natural History Review (London) (no. 4): 429–46
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1870), Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews, London
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1877), American Addresses.
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1887), "On the reception of the 'Origin of Species'", in Darwin, Francis, Life & Letters of Charles Darwin, London: John Murray
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1893-94), Collected essays. 9 vols. Vol 1: Methods and results; vol 2: Darwiniana; vol 3: Science and education; vol 4: Science and Hebrew tradition; vol 5: Science and Christian tradition; vol 6 :Hume, with helps to the study of Berkeley; vol 7:Man's place in nature; vol 8: Discourses biological and geological; vol 9: Evolution and ethics, and other essays, London: Macmillan
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1893-94a), Collected essays: vol 2 Darwiniana, London: Macmillan
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1893-94b), Collected essays: vol 3 Science and education, London: Macmillan
Huxley, Thomas Henry (1898-1903), "Preliminary essay upon the systematic arrangement of the fishes of the Devonian epoch.", in Foster, Michael & E. Ray Lankester, The scientific memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley. vol 2, London: Macmillan, pp. 421–60, ISBN 1432640119
Jensen, J Vernon (1970), "The X Club: fraternity of Victorian scientists", British Journal of the History of Science (no. 5): 63-72
Lester, Joe (1995), E. Ray Lankester:the making of modern British biology (edited, with additions, by Peter J. Bowler), BSHS Monograph #9
Lucas, John R. (1979), "Wilberforce and Huxley: a legendary encounter", The Historical Journal (Cambridge University Press) 22 (2), <http://users.ox.ac.uk/~jrlucas/legend.html> (retrieved on 2007-06-09)
Lyons, Sherrie L (18999), Thomas Henry Huxley: the evolution of a scientist, New York
MacBride, E.W. (1934), Huxley, London: Duckworth
MacGillivray, John (1852), Narrative of the voyage of HMS Rattlesnake. 2 vols, London: Boone
Mackenzie, N & J Mackenzie, eds. (1982), The diaries of Beatrice Webb vol 1 1873–1892, London: Virago
Mayr, Ernst (1982), The growth of biological thought, Harvard University Press, pp. 80
McMillan, N.D. & J Meehan (1980), John Tyndall: 'X'emplar of scientific & technological education, National Council for Educational Awards. (despite its chaotic organisation, this little book contains some nuggets that are well worth sifting)
Morley, John (1917), Recollections. 2 vols, Macmillan
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (1924), Impressions of great naturalists
Owen, Richard (1858), "On the characters, principles of division, and primary groups of the Class Mammalia", Proc Linnean Society: Zoology (no. 2): 1–37
Owen, Richard (1860), "Darwin on the Origin of Species", Edinburgh Review (no. 111): 487-532
Paradis, James & George C Williams (1989), Evolution and Ethics: T. H. Huxley's 'Evolution and Ethics', with New Essays on Its Victorian and Sociobiological Context, Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press
Paul, G (2002), "Looking for the true bird ancestor", Dinosaurs of the Air, the evolution and loss of flight in dinosaurs and birds, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, pp. 171-224, ISBN 0-8018-6763-0
Poulton, Edward Bagnall (1896), Charles Darwin and the theory of natural selection, London: Cassell.(Chapter 18 deals with Huxley and natural selection)
Pritchard, M. (1994), A directory of London photographers 1891-1908
Prum, R (2003), "Are current critiques of the theropod origin of birds science? Rebuttal To Feduccia 2002", The Auk 2 (120): 550-561
Ruse, Michael (1997), "Thomas Henry Huxley and the status of evolution as science", in Barr, Alan P., Thomas Henry Huxley's place in science and letters: centenary essays, Georgia: Athens
Spencer, Herbert (1904), Autobiography. 2 vols, London: Williams & Norgate
Webb, Beatrice (1926), My apprenticeship, London: Longmans
Wilberforce, Samuel (1860), "Darwin's Origin of Species", Quarterly Review (no. 102): 225-64
Wollaston, A.F.R. (1921), Life of Alfred Newton 1829–1907
White, Paul (2003), Thomas Huxley: making the 'Man of Science', Cambridge University Press
- Be changed to Brine!
A virtual community, e-community or online community is a group of people that primarily interact via communication media such as letters, telephone, email or Usenet rather than face to face. If the mechanism is a computer network, it is called an online community. Virtual and online communities have also become a supplemental form of communication between people who know each other primarily in real life. Many means are used in social software separately or in combination, including text-based chatrooms and forums that use voice, video text or avatars. Significant socio-technical change may have resulted from the proliferation of such Internet-based social networks.
The agglomeration of all online communities is sometimes called the metaverse.
A membership life cycle for online communities was proposed by Amy Jo Kim (2000). It states that members of virtual communities begin their life in a community as visitors, or lurkers. After breaking through a barrier, people become novices and participate in community life. After contributing for a sustained period of time they become regulars. If they break through another barrier they become leaders, and once they have contributed to the community for some time they become elders. This life cycle can be applied to many virtual communities, most obviously to bulletin boards, but also to blogs and wiki-based communities like Wikipedia.
Membership life cycle for virtual communities
Lave and Wengers' theories on situated cognition can illustrate the cycle of how users become incorporated into virtual communities using the principles of legitimate peripheral participation. They define five types of trajectories amongst a learning community:
The following shows the correlation between the learning trajectories and Web 2.0 community participation.
Peripheral – An outside, unstructured participation
Inbound – Newcomer is invested in the community and heading towards full participation
Insider – Full committed community participant
Boundary – A leader, sustains membership participation and brokers interactions
Outbound – Process of leaving the community due to new relationships, new positions, new outlooks Legitimate peripheral participation
Example – YouTube
Peripheral (Lurker) – Observing the community and viewing content. Does not add to the community content or discussion The user occasionally goes onto YouTube.com to check out a video that someone has directed them to.
Inbound (Newbie) – Just beginning to engage the community. Starts to provide content. Tentatively interacts in a few discussions The user comments on other user's videos. Potentially posts a video of their own.
Insider (Regular) – Consistently adds to the community discussion and content. Interacts with other users. Regularly posts videos. Either videos they have found or made themselves. Makes a concerted effort to comment and rate other user's videos.
Boundary (Moderator/ Expert) – Recognized as a veteran participant. Connects with regulars to make higher concepts ideas. Community grants their opinion greater consideration. The user has become recognized as a contributor to watch. Possibly their videos are podcasts commenting on the state of YouTube and its community. The user would not consider watching another user's videos without commenting on them. Will often correct a user in behavior the community considers inappropriate. Will reference other user's videos in their comments as a way to cross link content.
Outbound (Legacy) – Leaves the community for a variety of reasons. Interests have changed. Community has moved in a direction that doesn't agree with. Lack of time. User got a new job that takes up too much time to maintain a constant presence in the community. That and the YouTube culture seems to be drifting to a corporate commercial endorsement model rather than a social, grassroots platform that it once was.
Learning trajectory — online community participation
Several motivations lead people to contribute to virtual communities. Various online media (i.e. Wikis, Blogs, Chat rooms, Internet forums, Electronic mailing lists) are becoming ever greater knowledge-sharing resources. Many of these communities are highly cooperative and establish their own unique culture. They also involve significant time from contributors with no monetary gain. Some key examples of online knowledge sharing infrastructures include the following:
Several researchers have investigated motivation in virtual communities. Studies show that over the long term users gain a greater insight into the material that is being discussed and a sense of connection to the world at large.
Usenet: Established in 1980, as a "distributed Internet discussion system," it became the initial Internet community. Volunteer moderators and votetakers contribute to the community.
The WELL: A pioneering online community established in 1985. The WELL's culture has been the subject of several books and articles. Many users voluntarily contribute to community building and maintenance (e.g., as conference hosts).
AOL: The largest of the online service providers, with chat rooms which for years were voluntarily moderated by community leaders. It should be noted that rooms and most message boards are no longer moderated, however.
Slashdot: A popular technology-related forum, with articles and readers comments. Slashdot subculture has become well-known in Internet circles. Users accumulate a "karma score" and volunteer moderators are selected from those with high scores.
Wikipedia: Wikipedia is now the largest encyclopedia in the world. Its editors, who voluntarily publish and revise articles, have formed an intricate and multi-faceted community. Kollock's framework
A person is motivated to contribute valuable information to the group in the expectation that one will receive useful help and information in return. Indeed, there is evidence that active participants in online communities get more responses faster to questions than unknown participants (Kollock 178).
Recognition is important to online contributors such that, in general, individuals want recognition for their contributions. Some have called this Egoboo. Kollock outlines the importance of reputation online: "Rheingold (1993) in his discussion of the WELL (an early online community) lists the desire for prestige as one of the key motivations of individuals' contributions to the group. To the extent this is the concern of an individual, contributions will likely be increased to the degree that the contribution is visible to the community as a whole and to the extent there is some recognition of the person's contributions. … the powerful effects of seemingly trivial markers of recognition (e.g. being designated as an "official helper") has been commented on in a number of online communities…"
One of the key ingredients of encouraging a reputation is to allow contributors to be known or not to be anonymous. The following example, from Meyers (1989) study of the computer underground illustrates the power of reputation. When involved in illegal activities, computer hackers must protect their personal identities with pseudonyms. If hackers use the same nicknames repeatedly, this can help the authorities to trace them. Nevertheless, hackers are reluctant to change their pseudonyms regularly because the status associated with a particular nickname would be lost.
Profiles and reputation are clearly evident in online communities today. Amazon.com is a case in point, as all contributors are allowed to create profiles about themselves and as their contributions are measured by the community, their reputation increases. Myspace.com encourages elaborate profiles for members where they can share all kinds of information about themselves including what music they like, their heroes, etc. In addition to this, many communities give incentives for contributing. For example, many forums award you points for posting. Members can spend these points in a virtual store. eBay is an example of an online community where reputation is very important because it is used to measure the trustworthiness of someone you potentially will do business with. With eBay, you have the opportunity to rate your experience with someone and they, likewise, can rate you. This has an effect on the reputation score.
Individuals may contribute valuable information because the act results in a sense of efficacy, that is, a sense that they have had some effect on this environment. There is well-developed research literature that has shown how important a sense of efficacy is (e.g. Bandura 1995), and making regular and high quality contributions to the group can help individuals believe that they have an impact on the group and support their own self-image as an efficacious person.
Wikipedia is a good example of an online community that gives contributors a sense of efficacy. Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia which uses online software to enable anyone to create new articles and change any article in the encyclopedia. The changes you make are immediate, obvious, and available to the world.
Sense of efficacy
People, in general, are fairly social beings and it is motivating to many people to receive direct responses to their contributions. Most online communities enable this by allowing people to reply back to contributions (i.e. many Blogs allow comments from readers, one can reply back to forum posts, etc). Again, using Amazon.com, other users can rate whether one's product review was helpful or not. Granted, there is some overlap between increasing reputation and gaining a sense of community. However, it seems safe to say that there are some overlapping areas between all four motivators.
Sense of community
A problem for providers of online communities is some of their members will not participate through posting messages. These members do not participate for a number of reasons, including that they believe they did not need to post and that they believe they are being helpful by not doing so. Other community members that have been participating for a long time, known as elders, regularly participate because they believe that their actions will have positive outcomes. Previous attempts to understand why community members participate or do not participate has suggested that individuals are needs-driven or goal driven. Maslow's Hierarchical needs theory has suggested that the reason lurkers do not participate is that 'lower needs' are not being met, or 'higher needs' are being met elsewhere and that the reason elders do participate is that they are meeting their 'higher needs'.
Theories that suggest that individuals are needs-driven and so-called needs are met in the order of a hierarchy are not suitable for online communities. It is quite likely that community members will desire to do two things at the same time, something that needs-based theories do not take into account. Theories that suggest that individuals are goal-driven are more appropriate for online communities as users will develop and change goals based on their interactions in an online community. However, these theories are not entirely appropriate for explaining why some individuals desire to participate in an online community, but do not actually do so.
Virtual community pioneer Jonathan Bishop proposed an alternative framework for understanding such behaviours (see Bishop, 2007), which is based on the principles that individuals are driven to action by desires, these desires lead to plans that need to be consonant with their existing plans as well as their goals, values and beliefs, and how they carry out an action will depend on their interpretation of their environment. Some online community members, such as lurkers, believe that they do not need to post messages to online communities or believe that they are being helpful by not posting. Such beliefs prevent these individuals from carrying out their desires to be social and participate in the community. Bishop argues that online community providers should attempt to change these beliefs, even if it creates a degree of Cognitive dissonance with the individual's cognitions. The use of persuasive text is the main means by which an individual's beliefs can be challenged, though providing alternative information to the beliefs that the individual holds whilst not being consonant with an actor's goals. Challenging these beliefs may lead to the individual increasing their participation in online communities through allowing them to act out their desires.
Below are some guidelines that can be of use when trying to design an online community or foster a better knowledge sharing environment in your organization:
Virtual community design
See also: Metcalfe's law
See also: Bass diffusion model
Most online communities grow slowly at first, due in part to the fact that the strength of motivation for contributing is usually proportional to the size of the community. As the size of the potential audience increases, so does the attraction of writing and contributing. This, coupled with the fact that organizational culture does not change overnight, means creators can expect slow progress at first with a new virtual community. As more people begin to participate, however, the aforementioned motivations will increase, creating a virtuous cycle in which more participation begets more participation. It can be likened to a network, whereby the network's value is directly proportional to the square of the number of users it has. Many online community members describe their participation as "addictive".
The growth in community adoption is often forecast (that is, estimating the number of users in the community) by use of the Bass diffusion model, a mathematical formula originally conceived by Frank Bass to describe the process by which new products get adopted as an interaction between users and potential users.
Online community virtuous cycle
Usenet, one of the original decentralized, distributed discussion group architectures.
BBS: The WELL, GEnie, The Meta Network
Academic: EIES, USENET
Blog: LiveJournal, Xanga, MySpace, Facebook, Blogger
Webcomic: UserFriendly, Penny Arcade, Sluggy Freelance, Ctrl+Alt+Del
Virtual world/city: LucasFilm's Habitat, Second Life, Millsberry, Red Light Center, IMVU
IM: ICQ, Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger, AIM
MMORPG: EverQuest, Final Fantasy XI, RuneScape, World of Warcraft, Silk Road Online
Mososo: Dodgeball, Meetro
P2P: Kazaa, Morpheus, Napster, Limewire
Wiki: Wikipedia, WikiWikiWeb, MeatballWiki, Wetpaint, PBWiki
WWW: eBay, GeoCities, Slashdot, Digg
Consumers: eBay, Amazon.com Benchmark virtual communities
Additional virtual community listings
Dead Runners Society
TOTSE Discussion boards
See article: List of social networking websites
[The Corrupted Canvas]
Newgrounds Art communities
Some companies sponsor online discussion groups to facilitate online networking and consumer discourse. Many are not true communities, because there is no commitment or interpersonal connectivity. However, some do inspire such community, especially when developed by aficionados who are independent of the sponsoring company. One set of such communities is the
BMW Forum  Product-Oriented Online Communities
Category:MU* games MUD, MUSH, MOO
Fillos de Galicia
MIT BBS Ethnicity-based communities
Del.icio.us (social bookmarking)
MordorBBS (Global community, role-playing game, gallery, communal blog system)
doof(online games community, where users can meet, play and compete)
vMix (online video sharing community)
GameTZ.com (an online game, music, movie, and book trading community)
CouchSurfing (free accommodation world wide through hospitality exchange)
Hospitality Club (free accommodation world wide through hospitality exchange)
Meetup (an online service designed to facilitate real-world meetings of people involved in various virtual communities)
Meetro (local focused communities)
Stumbleupon (web surfing)
YTMND (Picture, Sound, Text)
TakingITGlobal (Youth - social networking for social good)
Vipera (Vipera network: Photo blogging, user opinions)
RedLightCenter (Multiplayer web community with ADULT content)
BeatCreators (News and content sharing community for Music Producers)
723.com (Fine Arts) Other types
Amy Jo Kim
Marilyn Mantei Tremaine
Rebecca B Newton
Marc A. Smith
Mark Zuckerberg Virtual community pioneers and experts
Bulletin board system
Community of practice
Internet social network
Massively distributed collaboration
Massively Multiplayer Online Role-playing Games
Network of practice
Social evolutionary computation
Video game culture
The Virtual Community
Virtual Community of Practice
Web of trust
Category:Virtual reality communities Notes
Virtual communities and domestic violence crimes committed by their users - A detailed discussion about whether popular virtual communities should be held legally responsible for online domestic violence crimes committed by their users.
This is a list of universities and other higher education institutions in Australia.
The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Act 2003 sets out three groups of higher education providers. Students at all three types of institutions are eligible for FEE-HELP, an income contingent loan to cover charges and fees.
Australian Catholic University ACU, NSW (both in Sydney): North Sydney (MacKillop), Strathfield (Mount St. Mary); Qld: Brisbane (Banyo); ACT: Canberra (Signadou); Vic: Ballarat (Aquinas); Melbourne (St Patrick's).
University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, Broome and Sydney. National
Australian National University ANU, Canberra
University of Canberra, Canberra Australian Capital Territory
Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, Wagga Wagga, Albury, Dubbo, Manly, Orange, Canberra
Macquarie University, Sydney
University of New England, Armidale
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Canberra, Singapore
University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Callaghan, Ourimbah, Port Macquarie, Singapore
Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Lismore, Tweed Heads
University of Sydney, Sydney
University of Technology, Sydney
University of Western Sydney
University of Wollongong, Wollongong New South Wales
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Parkville
Monash University, Melbourne (Clayton, Caulfield, Berwick, Peninsula, Parkville), Churchill (Gippsland) , Malaysia, South Africa
RMIT University , Melbourne, Vietnam
Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne(Hawthorn,Croydon, Prahran, Lilydale, Wantirna, and Healesville), Malaysia(Kuching)
La Trobe University, Melbourne, Albury-Wodonga, Bendigo, Beechworth, Shepparton, Mildura, Mt Buller
Deakin University, Geelong, Melbourne, Warrnambool
University of Ballarat, Ballarat
Victoria University, Melbourne Victoria
Bond University, Gold Coast
Central Queensland University, Bundaberg, Gladstone, Mackay, Rockhampton and Brisbane.
Griffith University, Brisbane and Gold Coast
James Cook University, Townsville and Cairns
University of Queensland, Brisbane, Ipswich, Gatton
Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Springfield, Fraser Coast
University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast Queensland
Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Sydney, Malaysia(Miri).
Edith Cowan University, Perth and Bunbury
Murdoch University, Perth and Mandurah
University of Western Australia, Perth and Albany.
University of Notre Dame Australia, Perth, Broome and Sydney. Western Australia
Flinders University, Adelaide
University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Waite and Roseworthy
University of South Australia, Adelaide and Whyalla
Carnegie Mellon University, Heinz School Australia, Adelaide South Australia
University of Tasmania, Hobart and Launceston Tasmania
Charles Darwin University, Darwin and Alice Springs(formerly Northern Territory University) Northern Territory
These institutions are for nearly all practical purposes, universities. However, they are deemed not to be because their academic focus is too narrow.
Australian Maritime College, Launceston (to become part of the University of Tasmania in 2008)
Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education, Northern Territory: Alice Springs, Batchelor, Darwin, Tennant Creek, Nhulunbuy, Katherine, Yarrabah and Western Australia: Kununurra
Melbourne College of Divinity, Melbourne (associated with the University of Melbourne) Other self-accrediting higher education institutions
Each qualification these institutions offer must first be approved by the relevant state or territory authority. For the purposes of maintainability, the list below only aims to include institutions that create their own degree, masters or doctorate courses - not those that deliver courses created by others, or create only lesser courses. Links to full lists of Higher Education course originators can be found at the bottom of this section.
Institutions that only deliver higher education courses created by another institution can be found via the parent institution listed.
Victorian College of the Arts, Melbourne (associated with the University of Melbourne)
National Art School, Sydney
National Institute of Dramatic Art, Sydney
Australian Film, Television and Radio School, Sydney Specialist
Box Hill Institute, Melbourne
Canberra Institute of Technology, Canberra
Gordon Institute of TAFE, Geelong
Monash College, Melbourne (associated with Monash University)
Northern Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne
TAFE South Australia General
Australian College of Theology and affiliates, Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide and Perth
ICI College completely through correspondence via Tasmania
Institute for the Nations - Australia, Youth With A Mission affiliate registered in ACT
Tabor College, Adelaide, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney National
Presbyterian Theological Centre, Sydney
Lois Reid College of Counselling Studies, Tamworth
Avondale College, Cooranbong (New South Wales)
Campion College Australia, Sydney
College of Christian Higher Education, Sydney
Sydney College of Divinity, Sydney
Wesley Institute for Ministry and the Arts, Sydney
Moore Theological College
Sydney Missionary and Bible College New South Wales
Adelaide College of Divinity (associated with Flinders University)
Adelaide College of Ministries
Australian Lutheran College, Adelaide
Bible College of South Australia, Adelaide South Australia
Worldview Centre for Inter-Cultural Studies, Hobart Tasmania
Brisbane College of Theology
Christian Heritage College, Brisbane
Malyon College, Brisbane
Nazerene Theological College, Brisbane Queensland
Catholic Theological College, Melbourne
Harvest Bible College, Melbourne
John Paul II Institute for Marriage and Family, Melbourne
Kingsley College, Melbourne Victoria
Harvest West Bible College, Perth
Perth Bible College Western Australia
Adelaide Central School of Art
Australian College of Applied Psychology, Sydney and Brisbane
Australian College of Natural Medicine, Brisbane, Perth and Melbourne
Australian College of Physical Education, Sydney
Australian Guild of Music Education, Melbourne
Australian Institute of Public Safety, Melbourne
Australian Institute of Music, Sydney
Australian International Hotel School, Canberra
Billy Blue School of Graphic Arts, Sydney
Earth Institute, Sydney
International College of Hotel Management, Adelaide
Jansen Newman Institute, Sydney
Jschool: Journalism Education & Training
Kaylene Kranz and Associates, Adelaide
Kollel Beth Hatalmud Yehuda Fishman Institute, Melbourne
Le Cordon Bleu Australia, Adelaide
Marcus Oldham College, Geelong
National Institute of Health Sciences, Canberra
Nature Care College, Sydney
Oceania Polytechnic Institute of Education, Melbourne
Raffles College of Design and Commerce, Sydney
SAE Institute (includes QANTM College), Sydney, Byron Bay, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth, dozens more in other countries
Southern School of Natural Therapies, Melbourne
Sydney Graphics College
William Blue International Hotel Management School, Sydney Specialist
Alexander Institute of Technology, Perth
Gibaran Business School (incorporating Australian Institute of Business Administration, Entrepreneurship Institute Australia, and Tourism Institute Australia), Adelaide
Holmesglen Institute of TAFE, Melbourne
ILM Australia, None. Although registered in Australia, it only delivers courses outside the country.
Institute of Business and Technology, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane & Adelaide
Open Polytechnic of New Zealand, via an affiliate in Melbourne General
Institutions operating in the external territories are auspiced by the Commonwealth Deparment of Education, Science and Training. However, there are none at this time (2005).
WA Full listings
Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee - the peak higher education institution group.
Group of Eight - the most prestigious universities.
IRU Australia - newer universities
Australian Technology Network - technically minded universities that promote themselves as offering more practical courses.
New Generation Universities - some of the universities that were formerly colleges of advanced education and were designated universities with the collapse of the binary divide in 1988.
Universitas 21 - a worldwide group of universities
Open Universities Australia - a group of universities that offer distance education courses as part of a common platform.
List of all federally auspiced higher education institutions in Australia. Rankings of universities
List of colleges and universities
List of colleges and universities by country
List of schools in Australia
Education in Australia
Technical and Further Education (TAFE)