Roman Kingdom 753 BC – 510 BC Roman Republic 510 BC – 27 BC Roman Empire 27 BC – AD 476
Principate Western Empire
Dominate Eastern Empire
Consul Praetor Quaestor Promagistrate
Aedile Tribune Censor Governor
Dictator Magister Equitum Consular tribune
Rex Triumviri Decemviri
Legatus Dux Officium Praefectus Vicarius Vigintisexviri Lictor
Magister Militum Imperator Princeps senatus Pontifex Maximus Augustus Caesar Tetrarch
Roman Senate Cursus honorum Roman assemblies Collegiality
Roman law Roman citizenship Auctoritas Imperium
Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis "temple," "building") was an office of the Roman Republic. Based in Rome, the aediles were responsible for maintenance of public buildings and regulation of public festivals. They also had powers to enforce public order. Half of the aediles were from the ranks of plebeians and half were patricians. The latter were called curule aediles (aediles curules) and they were considered curule magistrates.
The office was generally held by young men intending to follow the cursus honorum to high political office. However it was not a legal part of the cursus, merely an advantageous starting point which demonstrated the aspiring politician's commitment to public service.
They were created in the same year as the tribunes of the people (494 BC). Originally intended as assistants to the tribunes, they exercised certain police functions, were empowered to inflict fines and managed the plebeian and Roman games. According to Livy (vi. 42), after the passing of the Licinian rogations, an extra day was added to the Roman games; the aediles refused to bear the additional expense, whereupon the patricians offered to undertake it, on condition that they were admitted to the aedileship. The plebeians accepted the offer, and accordingly two curule aediles were appointed--at first from the patricians alone, then from patricians and plebeians in turn, lastly, from either--at the Comitia Tributa under the presidency of the consul. Although not sacrosanct, they had the right of sitting in a curule chair and wore the distinctive toga praetexta. They took over the management of the Roman and Megalesian games, the care of the patrician temples and had the right of issuing edicts as superintendents of the markets. But although the curule aediles always ranked higher than the plebeian, their functions gradually approximated and became practically identical.
Cicero (Legg. iii. 3, 7) divides these functions under three heads:
(1) Care of the city: the repair and preservation of temples, sewers and aqueducts; street cleansing and paving; regulations regarding traffic, dangerous animals and dilapidated buildings; precautions against fire; superintendence of baths and taverns; enforcement of sumptuary laws; punishment of gamblers and usurers; the care of public morals generally, including the prevention of foreign superstitions. They also punished those who had too large a share of the ager publicus, or kept too many cattle on the state pastures.
(2) Care of provisions: investigation of the quality of the articles supplied and the correctness of weights and measures; the purchase of corn for disposal at a low price in case of necessity.
(3) Care of line games: superintendence and organization of the public games, as well as of those given by themselves and private individuals (e.g. at funerals) at their own expense. Ambitious persons often spent enormous sums in this manner to win the popular favor with a view to official advancement.
In 44 BC Julius Caesar added two patrician aediles, called Cereales, whose special duty was the care of the cereal-supply. Under Augustus the office lost much of its importance, its juridical functions and the care of the games being transferred to the praetor, while its city responsibilities were limited by the appointment of a praefectus urbi. In the 3rd century AD it disappeared altogether.