Baptism, from Greek βαπτίζω (baptízô), is a religious act of purification by water usually associated with admission to membership or fullness of membership of Christianity.
The Greek-English Lexicon of Liddell and Scott, the most authoritative source for the meaning of Greek words, gives the primary meaning of the word βαπτίζω, from which the English word baptism is derived, as dip, plunge, but indicates, citing Luke 11:38, that it was used also to mean perform ablutions. of Sikhism.
Because of the word's association with Christianity and its periodically repeated character, the Jewish purification rite of mikvah is not normally spoken of as baptism.
This article will mainly consider the practices and beliefs of Christians with regard to this rite and in particular the forms in which they hold that it should be administered.

Meaning of the Greek word βαπτίζω


Main article: Mikvah Background in Jewish ritual
The Bible gives accounts of baptisms performed before this period, in the lifetime of Jesus, by John the Baptist in the Jordan River,
On the separate but related question of whether early Christians baptized infants, see the article on infant baptism.

Apostolic period
The following period of Early Christianity seems to have introduced little to no changes. Immersion continued to be the usual method of baptism for the remission of sins, and there is no evidence to suggest that the practice of the first century differed in any way from what is known more precisely from the second and third centuries. "In the case of the sick or dying, where immersion was impossible, the sacrament was then conferred by one of the other forms. This was so well recognized that infusion or aspersion received the name of the "baptism of the sick" (baptismus clinicorum), because it was hardly an "immersion" or "dipping" in water. Cyprian's Epistle 75 (third century) declared this form to be valid. From the canons of various early councils we know that candidates for Holy orders who had been baptized by this method seem to have been regarded as irregular, but this was on account of the culpable negligence supposed to be manifested in delaying baptism until sick or dying. That such persons, however, were not to be rebaptized is an evidence that the Church held their baptism to be valid."
By the time of John Calvin, some held that immersion in water for remission of sins (Acts 2:38), the "burial in baptism" used as a figure of speech in Romans 6:4 and Colossians 2:12, was not required in Christianity to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Instead, they posited a waterless "baptism in the spirit", citing , Jesus on the day of his Ascension in Acts 1:5: "For John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days hence." (See Baptism in Hyperdispensationalism.)

Post-apostolic period
Today, baptism is most readily identified with Christianity, where it symbolizes the cleansing (remission) of sins, and the union of the believer with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection so that he may be called "saved" or "born again." Most Christian groups practice some form of literal water-based baptism and agree that it is important, yet strongly disagree with other groups regarding any or all of several aspects of the rite, such as:
A few Christian groups assert that water baptism has been supplanted by the promised "baptism of the Holy Spirit", and water baptism was unnecessarily carried over from the early Jewish Christian practice. Some require the explicit word "water" to be used in the text if it is to be interpreted as a literal baptism in water.

manner or method of the "baptism", including the necessity of using water
recipients of baptism
meaning and effects of baptism Modern practice
Today, Christian baptism takes many forms among Christian denominations, but the three basic forms are:
Aspersion - sprinkling water on the head
Affusion - pouring water over the head
Immersion - lowering the entire body into water.
For Christians who baptize by pouring or sprinkling, the washing with water from above pictures the cleansing of one's sins by the blood of Christ, by the Holy Spirit, who unites the baptized person to Christ in His death, and in His resurrection from the dead. Some Christians who immerse either take the same symbol after the fact as above or additionally account it as the penitents necessary obedience to the faith from the heart Mark 16:16, Romans 6:17, 1Peter 4:17 by which obedience God remits sins and imparts the indwelling Holy Spirit Acts 5:32 which will raise the body up on the last day just as the Spirit raised Jesus from the dead, Romans 8:9-11. However excepting Hyperdispensationalism and a few others who embrace a "faith only" position, it is believed to be the point at which the gift of the life-giving Spirit is received, and to portray baptism as an act not of man, but of God. Regardless of the form, baptism is usually a public rite, in testimony to others of the grace of God bestowed upon the person whose remitted sins, and as the seal of God's promises 2Corinthians 1:22, Ephesians 1:13 are received in Christ to those who believe.

Manner of baptism
There are differences in views about the effect of baptism for a Christian. Some Christian groups assert baptism is a requirement for salvation and a sacrament, and speak of "baptismal regeneration." This view is shared by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, by Churches formed early during the Protestant Reformation such as Lutheran, Anglican and Methodist, and Restorationist Churches such as the Churches of Christ and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). For example, Martin Luther said:
To put it most simply, the power, effect, benefit, fruit, and purpose of Baptism is to save. No one is baptized in order to become a prince, but as the words say, to "be saved." To be saved, we know, is nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and the devil and to enter into the kingdom of Christ and live with him forever.
For Roman Catholics, baptism by water is a sacrament of initiation into the life of children of God. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1212-13). It configures the person to Christ (CCC 1272), and obliges the Christian to share in the Church's apostolic and missionary activity (CCC 1270). The Catholic Tradition holds that there are three types of baptism by which one can be saved: sacramental baptism (with water), baptism of desire (explicit or implicit desire to be part of the Church founded by Jesus Christ), and baptism of blood (martyrdom) (see topic below : Catholic baptism and salvation).
By contrast, Baptist and Calvinist groups espouse baptism as a worthy practice, but say that baptism has no sacramental power, and only testifies outwardly to the invisible and internal operation of God's power, which is completely separate from the rite itself.

Meaning and effects of baptism
The liturgy of baptism in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican, and Methodist traditions makes clear reference to baptism as not only a symbolic burial and resurrection, but an actual supernatural transformation, one that draws parallels to the experience of Noah and the passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea divided by Moses. Thus baptism is literally and symbolically not only cleansing, but also dying and rising again with Christ. Catholics believe that baptism is necessary for the cleansing of the taint of original sin, and for that reason infant baptism is a common practice. The Eastern Churches (Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy) also baptize infants on the basis of texts such as Matthew 19:14, which are interpreted as supporting full Church membership for children, and so baptism is immediately followed by Chrismation and Communion at the next Divine Liturgy regardless of age. Orthodox likewise believe that baptism removes what they call the ancestral sin of Adam. Anglicans believe that Baptism is also the entry into the Church and therefore allows them access to all rights and responsibilities as full members, including the privilege to receive Holy Communion. Most Anglicans agree that it also cleanses the taint of what in the West is called original sin, in the East ancestral sin.
Eastern Orthodox Christians usually insist on complete three-fold immersion as both a symbol of death and rebirth into Christ, and as a washing away of sin. Latin Rite Catholics generally baptize by affusion (pouring); Eastern Catholics usually by immersion, at least partial. However immersion is gaining in popularity within the Latin Catholic Church. In newer churches, the baptismal font may be designed to expressly allow for baptism by immersion. Older church building may feature this as well by either building a new baptismal font or expanding an existing one. Anglicans baptize by immersion, affusion or sprinkling.
Although the New Testament contains no explicit instructions on how physically to administer the water of baptism (see Meaning of the word above), Baptists argue that the Greek word βαπτίζω found in the New Testament originally meant "to immerse". They also state that only immersion reflects the symbolic significance of being "buried" and "raised" with Christ (see Romans 6:3-4).

Baptism in most Christian traditions
Comparative Summary of Baptisms of Denominations of Christian Influence.

Comparative summary
The ecumenical paper Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry, prepared by representatives across a spectrum of Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestants traditions of Christianity, attempts to express a common understanding of baptism, as it is derived from the New Testament.
" ... according to Acts 2:38, baptisms follow from Peter's preaching baptism in the name of Jesus and lead those baptized to the receiving of Christ's Spirit, the Holy Ghost, and life in the community: "They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers" (2:42) as well as to the distribution of goods to those in need (2:45). Those who heard, who were baptized and entered the community's life, were already made witnesses of and partakers in the promises of God for the last days: the forgiveness of sins through baptism in the name of Jesus and the outpouring of the Holy Ghost on all flesh (2:38). Similarly, in what may well be a baptismal pattern, 1 Peter testifies that proclamation of the resurrection of Jesus Christ and teaching about new life (1:3-21) lead to purification and new birth (1:22-23). This, in turn, is followed by eating and drinking God's food (2:2-3), by participation in the life of the community — the royal priesthood, the new temple, the people of God (2:4-10) — and by further moral formation (2:11 ff.). At the beginning of 1 Peter the writer sets this baptism in the context of obedience to Christ and sanctification by the Spirit (1:2). So baptism into Christ is seen as baptism into the Spirit (cf. 1 Corinthians 12:13). In the fourth gospel Jesus' discourse with Nicodemus indicates that birth by water and Spirit becomes the gracious means of entry into the place where God rules (John 3:5)."

Ecumenical statement
In Roman Catholic teaching, baptism plays an essential role in salvation..
The Church recognizes two other forms of non biblical baptism: "baptism of blood" and "baptism of desire." Baptism of blood refers to unbaptized individuals who are martyred for the Faith, while baptism of desire generally refers to catechumens who die before they can be baptized. The Catechism of the Catholic Church describes these two forms:
The Church has always held the firm conviction that those who suffer death for the sake of the faith without having received Baptism are baptized by their death for and with Christ. This Baptism of blood, like the desire for Baptism, brings about the fruits of Baptism without being a sacrament. (1258)
For catechumens who die before their Baptism, their explicit desire to receive it, together with repentance for their sins, and charity, assures them the salvation that they were not able to receive through the sacrament. (1259)
Non-Christians who seek God with a sincere heart and, moved by grace, try to do His will as they know it through the dictates of conscience can also be saved without water baptism; they are said to desire it implicitly. (cf. Catechism, 1260). As for unbaptized infants, the Church is unsure of their fate; "the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God" (Catechism, 1261).

Baptism and salvation in Catholic teaching
Since the Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican Churches teach that baptism is a sacrament having actual spiritual and salvific effects, certain criteria must be complied with for it to be valid (i.e., to actually have those effects.) These criteria are actually broader than the ordinary practice. Violation of some rules regarding baptism renders the baptism illicit (in violation of the Church's laws) but still valid. For example, if a priest introduces some variation in the authorized rite for the ceremony, the baptism may still be valid (provided certain key criteria are met).
One of the criteria for validity is that the correct form of words be used. Latin Rite Roman Catholics and Episcopalians/Anglicans use the form "I baptize you..."; Eastern Orthodox and some Eastern Catholic Churches use the form "This servant of Christ is baptized..." or "This person is baptized by my hands...". These Churches recognize each other's form of baptism as valid to varying degrees. The Catholic Church teaches that the use of the verb "baptize" is essential. An article published together with the official declaration to that effect gave reasons for that judgement, summed up in the following words: "The Baptism of the Catholic Church and that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints differ essentially, both for what concerns faith in the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in whose name Baptism is conferred, and for what concerns the relationship to Christ who instituted it."

Conditions of the validity of a baptism
There is debate among Christian churches as to who can administer baptism. The examples given in the New Testament only show apostles and deacons administering baptism. Ancient Christian churches interpret this as indicating that baptism should be performed by the clergy except in extremis, i.e., when the one being baptized is in immediate danger of death. Then anyone may baptize, provided, in the view of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the person who does the baptizing is a member of that Church, or, in the view of the Roman Catholic Church, that the person, even if not baptized, intends to do what the Church does in administering the rite. Many Protestant churches see no specific prohibition in the biblical examples and permit any believer to baptize another.
In the Latin Rite Catholic Church the ordinary minister of baptism is a member of the clergy (bishop, priest or deacon), Phillip his own (such as the Ethiopian eunuch), etc.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, only a man holding the priesthood office of Priest or higher office may administer baptism.

Who may administer a baptism
Baptist groups derive their name either from the restrictions that they traditionally place on the mode and subjects of the ordinance of baptism or from a shortening of the term Anabaptist which means to rebaptize. Anabaptists were labeled such because they re-baptized people who had received infant baptism, sprinkling, or baptism of any sort by another denomination. Some modern Baptists do not believe baptism by immersion is the only legitimate form of baptism, they simply perform baptism by immersion for members who wish to be baptized. It does not imply that any previous form of baptism by affusion or sprinkling is invalid. Baptism is an act identifying one as having accepted Jesus Christ as Savior. And "one enters by baptism into the membership of the church which
performs it."
Baptist theologians (such as John Gill) teach that baptism is only for those who can understand and profess their faith. This is called believer's baptism. Some, such as Gill, argue that the regulative principle of worship, which many paedobaptists also advocate and which states that elements of worship (including baptism) must be based on explicit commands of Scripture, is violated by infant baptism. Some would argue that according to this understanding, the re-baptisms that Baptists generally perform if a person was not regenerate when baptized also violate the Regulative Principle for Worship. Furthermore, because the New Covenant is described in {{bibleverse||Jeremiah|31:31-34} as a time when all who were members of it would have the law written on their hearts and would know God, Baptist theology teaches that only those who are born again, as indicated by a profession of faith, are members of the New Covenant. They view this text as speaking of the visible church in the present age, rather than as a prophetic text of God's New Covenant in Christ administered to all saints from Genesis to the present, which will be fulfilled when Christ returns to earth. Baptism is therefore not administered to those unable to make a credible confession of saving faith in Christ prior to being baptized; but it will be administered upon making this confession, regardless of the confessor's age. Some Baptist churches take exception to this and are very hesitant to baptize young children because they want to confirm whether or not they are regenerate. A confession alone is not enough for these churches, they want to see fruit of regeneration in the life of the person to be baptized, which some argue violates the example set forth in the book of Acts, which performed immediate baptisms.
Those who hold views influenced by the Baptists may perform the ceremony indoors in a baptismal font, a swimming pool, or a bathtub, or outdoors in a creek or river: as long as there is water, nothing prevents the performance of Baptism. Protestant groups influenced by these convictions usually emphasize that it memorializes the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus (Romans 6), which according to the grace of God has become the basis of repentance and new life for those who have professed belief in Him, symbolizing spiritual death with regard to sin and a new life of faith in God. They typically teach that baptism does not accomplish anything in itself, but is an outward sign or testimony, a personal act, indicating the invisible reality that the person's sins have already been washed away by the cross of Christ, and applied to their life according to their profession of faith. It is also understood to be a covenantal act, signifying entrance into the New Covenant of Christ (Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:8-12, Romans 6).
For Baptists, baptism is a requirement for church membership, rather than a necessary requirement for salvation. Once baptized, a Baptist may move their membership to another congregation by letter.
The above description applies not just to those denominations using Baptist in their names, but also to a wide variety of other Protestant denominations deriving from the Anabaptist tradition, including some Mennonites and Pentecostals.

Anabaptist and Baptist baptism

Main article: Covenant Theology#Baptism Reformed and Covenant Theology view
This section is a part of a series on The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
See also: Baptism for the dead and Rebaptism (Latter Day Saints)
In the Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism), baptism is recognized as the first ordinance of the gospel. As with many other Restorationist faiths, baptism must be by immersion for the remission of sins (meaning that through baptism, past sins are forgiven), and occurs after one has shown faith and repentance. LDS baptism does not intend to remit any sins other than personal ones, as the LDS Church does not believe in original sin.
Latter Day Saint baptisms also occur only after an "age of accountability", or the age at which a child begins to know right from wrong, which is defined by the church as the age of eight years. Mormonism rejects infant baptism. In addition, Mormonism requires that baptism may only be performed with one who has been called and ordained by God with priesthood authority. Since the LDS Church has a lay priesthood, children raised in an LDS family are usually baptized by a father or close male friend or family member who has achieved the office of priest, which is conferred to "worthy" male members at the age of 16.
Latter Day Saints do not believe that the gift of the Holy Spirit occurs immediately after baptism; rather, the gift is given by the laying on of hands in a separate confirmation ritual after baptism. This ritual is believed to be confirmed by Paul's actions in Acts 19:6, where, following the baptism of several followers of Christ, he "laid his hands upon" those who were baptized and they then received the Holy Ghost.
The process of repentance and sanctification continues by partaking of the sacrament every week, which Latter Day Saints consider to be a renewal of one's baptismal covenant with God. They also believe that baptism is symbolic both of Jesus's death, burial and resurrection and of the death and burial of the natural or sinful man and rebirth as a disciple of Jesus of the one baptized.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (or "Mormon" Church), baptism and confirmation are only the first of several ordinances believed to be required for exaltation. Membership into the LDS Church is granted only by baptism whether or not a person has been raised in the church. As Latter-day Saints do not recognize the validity of baptisms of other faiths, all who come into the church as converts are baptized, even if they have previously received baptism in another faith. The person being baptized must be at least eight years old. The church also practices baptism for the dead (along with all other ordinances) "vicariously" or "by proxy" in their temples for anyone who did not receive these ordinances while living.
Baptisms inside and outside the temples are usually done in a font, although they can be performed in any body of water in which the person may be completely immersed. In Latter-day Saint temples, where proxy baptisms are performed for the dead, the fonts rest on the sculptures of twelve oxen representing the twelve tribes of Israel, following the pattern of the "molten sea" in the Temple of Solomon (see 2 Chronicles 4:2-5). Great care is taken in the execution of the baptism; if the baptism is not executed properly it must be redone. The person administering the baptism must recite the prayer exactly, and immerse every part, limb, hair and clothing of the person being baptized. If there are any mistakes, or if any part of the person being baptized is not fully immersed, the baptism must be redone. In addition to the baptizer, two priesthood holders witness the baptism to ensure that it is performed properly.

Baptism in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Baptism is also practiced by Jehovah's Witnesses, who believe that it should be performed by complete immersion only when one is old enough to understand the significance of it. They teach that water baptism is an outward symbol that one has made a complete, unreserved, and unconditional dedication through Jesus Christ to do the will of Jehovah God. Jehovah's Witnesses usually baptize converts at large conventions rather than at the local Kingdom Halls.

Jehovah's Witnesses
There is no single statement of conformity on the doctrine of baptism as practiced by Churches of Christ, yet there are several similarities among the vast majority of congregations: Basically, Churches of Christ believe in the age of accountability and believer's baptism. Churches of Christ practice immersion baptism only and do not baptize infants. However, they also believe that baptism is necessary for salvation. There is no restriction upon who may perform a baptism, but it is usually done by an adult male. Adult converts are baptized, as are children who are old enough to understand that they are accountable for their sins and to understand the sacrifice of Christ and the meaning of his death, burial, and resurrection.
Scriptural Basis: Churches of Christ interpret Matthew's version of the Great Commission as requiring that baptism be by a full immersion in water, though the text does not specify the manner in which baptism is to be performed. Romans 6:3-5 compares baptism to a "burial", in their view indicating, along with other descriptions in the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, that baptism was an immersion. They see Acts 2:38 as teaching that repentance precedes baptism and that the remission of sins occurs at baptism. Though they often cite this verse when discussing the doctrine of baptism, they disagree on what the phrase "the gift of the Holy Spirit" that comes after baptism means, but most understand it to mean the gift of salvation promised by God through the Spirit (cf. Acts 2:21, Romans 6:23, Titus 1:1-2 {{{3}}}). They say that Acts 8:36 ("Now as they went down the road, they came to some water. And the eunuch said, "See, here is water. What hinders me from being baptized?") and other passages assert that the baptismal burial is in water, not in some spiritual or figurative element.
Churches of Christ sites quote 1 Peter 3:21 ("Baptism doth also now save us") and take it to mean that baptism is essential to salvation. However, the same verse goes on to say, "not the removal of dirt from flesh [ie, with water], but the appeal of a clean conscience to God." Romans 6:3 states that baptism puts one into the death of Christ, and Galatians 3:27 that baptism clothes one in Christ. John 3:1-7 has also been cited to exclude salvation without baptism. The correct interpretation of these verses is disputed.

Baptism in Churches of Christ
Hyperdispensationalists assert:
Water baptism found early in the book of Acts is, according to this view, now supplanted by the one baptism (1 Corinthians 12:13) foretold by John the Baptist (Luke 3:16, John 1:33, Matt 3:11, Acts 1:5). The one baptism for today, it is asserted, is the "baptism of the Holy Spirit" (Acts 11:15-16). This, "spirit" baptism, however, is unlikely given the texts and facts that the baptisms of the Eunuch (Acts 8:36) and the household of Cornelius (Acts 10:47-48) were explicitly in water. Further evidence points to the humanly administered Great Commission which was to last until the end of the world Matthew 28:19-20. Therefore, the baptism the Ephesians underwent was water by context (Ephesians 5:26; Acts 19:1-5). Likewise, Holy Spirit Baptism is recorded as only occurring twice in all the book of Acts to selected individuals (Acts 2:1-4; Acts 10:44-46). Finally, it is argued that only Jesus possessed the power to baptize with the Holy Spirit and with Fire which eliminates any mortal ever doing, Matthew 3:11, Luke 3:16.
"John answered, saying to all, "I indeed baptize you with water; but One mightier than I is coming, whose sandal strap I am not worthy to loose. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire" (Luke 3:16)
Many in this group also argue that John's promised baptism by fire is pending, referring to the destruction of the world by fire (Matthew 3:12, Luke 3:17, 2 Peter 3:10).
John, as he said "baptized with water," as did Jesus's disciples to the early, Jewish Christian church. Jesus himself never personally baptized with water, but did so through his disciples (John 4:1-2). Unlike Jesus' first Apostles, Paul, his Apostle to the Gentiles, was sent to preach rather than to baptize (1 Corinthians 1:17) but did occasionally baptize, for instance in Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:14-16) and in Philippi (Acts 16:13), in the same manner as they (cf. Math 28:19). In Romans 6:4 he also taught the spiritual significance of the submerging in baptism and how one contacts the atoning death of Christ in such.

The great commission ({{bibleverse||Matthew|28:18-20}) and its baptism is directed to early Jewish believers, not the Gentile believers of mid-Acts or later.
The baptism of Acts 2:36-38 is Peter's call for Israel to repent of complicity in the death of the Messiah; not as an Gospel announcement of atonement for sin, a later doctrine revealed by Paul. Other baptisms
Many cultures practice or have practiced rites similar to Christian baptism, including the ancient Egyptian, the Hebraic/Jewish, the Babylonian, the Mayan, and the Norse cultures. The modern Japanese practice of Miyamairi is not entirely dissimilar. In some, such evidence may be archaeological and descriptive in nature, rather than a modern practice.

Non-Christian religions
Apuleius, a second-century Roman writer, described his initiation into the mysteries of Isis:
The priest brought me to the next baths, surrounded by the pious troop, and after I had had an ordinary bath, he prayed for the grace of the gods and cleansed me completely, sprinkling me with water from all sides.

Mystery religion initiation rites
Mandaeans, who abhor Jesus and Moses as false prophets, revere John the Baptist and practice frequent baptism.

Mandaean baptism

Main article: Amrit Sanskar Sikh baptism ceremony
Islam recommends a sort of washing called Ghosol (Arabic word means washing) which should include the washing of the whole body in special order or immersion of the whole body in a river for instance. This Ghosol is required for an adult when adopting Islam, after each sexual intercourse or a wetdream or a menstrual cycle. Also is required to be done for dead bodies.
Such Ghosol is very differnt from practises in other religions,as it is a mere equivalent of taking a bath. A person takes it alone privately, whenever it s indicated or he wants. Its far away from being called a ritual.

Ritual washing in Islam
The Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica, or Gnostic Catholic Church (the ecclesiastical arm of Ordo Templi Orientis), offers the Rite of Baptism to any person at least 11 years old.

Gnostic Catholicism and Thelema

Metaphorical baptisms
Although it is technically an improper use of the term, the word baptism is sometimes used to describe other non-sacramental ceremonies.

The name Baptism of Bells has been given to the blessing of (musical, especially church) bells, at least in France, since the eleventh century. It is derived from the washing of the bell with holy water by the bishop, before he anoints it with the oil of the infirm without and with chrism within; a fuming censer is placed under it and the bishop prays that these sacramentals of the Church may, at the sound of the bell, put the demons to flight, protect from storms, and call the faithful to prayer.
Baptism of Ships: at least since the time of the Crusades, rituals have contained a blessing for ships. The priest begs God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in it, as He did the ark of Noah, and Peter, when the Apostle was sinking in the sea, and the ship is sprinkled with holy water. Baptism of objects
Although even the use of water is often absent, the term baptism is also used for various initiations as rite of passage to a walk of secular life.

In Belgium, for example, one word for academic hazing is schachtendoop ('pledge baptism') in Dutch or Baptême in French. It is the traditional way of initiation into student societies (generally gender-mixed) and is accepted by institutions of higher education and sometimes controlled, e.g. by the Belgian universities UCL and ULB.
In the Brazilian martial art capoeira, an annual promotion ceremony is held, known as a batizado (literally "baptism"). For practitioners participating in their first batizado, it is traditional to receive their Capoeira names at that time, as a mark that they have been received in the community of Capoeiristas. The name is often given by the senior instructor or other senior students, and is largely determined by an individual way they perform a movement, how they look, or something else unique to the individual. Their Capoeira name is often used as a nom de guerre within Capoeira circles, a tradition which dates back to when practicing Capoeira was illegal in Brazil.
See also baptism by fire. Non-religious baptism

See also

Baptism of Jesus
Believer's baptism
Baptism of desire
Disciple (Christianity)
Infant baptism
Prevenient Grace
Conditional baptism
Emergency baptism
Jesus-Name doctrine
Baptistery Related articles and subjects

Baptismal font
Holy water
John the Baptist
Chrisom People and ritual objects

"In Defense of Infant Baptism" Issues Etc. Journal (http://www.issuesetc.org/resource/journals/v2n3.htm#In%20Defense%20of%20Infant%20Baptism)
Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry (Faith and order paper). World Council of Churches, 1982. ISBN 978-2-8254-0709-7
Jungkuntz, Richard. The Gospel of Baptism. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1968.
Kolb, Robert. Make Disciples Baptizing: God's Gift of New Life and Christian Witness. Fascicle Series, Number 1. St. Louis: Concordia Seminary Publications, 1997. ISBN 978-0-911770-66-7
Scaer, David P. Baptism. Confessional Lutheran Dogmatics, Vol. XI. St. Louis: The Luther Academy, 1999. OCLC 41004868, ASIN B0006R304U
Schlink, Edmund. The Doctrine of Baptism. Herbert J. A. Bouman, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1972. ISBN 978-0-570-03726-2
Stookey, L.H. Baptism: Christ's Act in the Church. Nashville: Abingdon, 1982. ISBN 978-0-687-02364-6
Ware, Timothy (Bishop Kallistos of Diokleia). The Orthodox Church (2nd ed.). London: Penguin Books, 1993, pp 277-278. ISBN 978-0-14-014656-1
Willimon, William. Remember Who You Are: Baptism and the Christian Life. Nashville: Upper Room, 1980. ISBN 978-0-8358-0399-1 Resources



Baptism (orthodoxwiki.org) Orthodox

Catholic Encyclopedia: Baptism
Baptism - Catholic Sacrament of Initiation - Christening
Catechism of the Catholic Church: Baptism Catholic

Baptism in the Baptist Faith and Message (1963)
Baptist Handbook For Church Members Baptist

"By Water & the Spirit" (Official UMC Statement on Baptism)
FAQs about Baptism, Membership, & Salvation (United Methodist Church General Board of Discipleship) Methodist

Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online: Baptism Baptism Mormon

Baptism according to the Church of Christ

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