2007年9月12日水曜日


FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio.

Main article: frequency modulation Broadcast bands
Throughout the world, the broadcast band is 87.5 to 108.0 MHz, or some portion thereof. In the U.S. it is 87.8 to 108.0 MHz. Japan is the only exception, using the 76 to 90 MHz band with 0.1 MHz channel spacing.
In the former Soviet republics, and some Eastern Bloc nations, an additional older band from 65.9 to 74 MHz is also used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries.
The frequency of an FM broadcast station (more strictly its assigned nominal centre frequency) is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of the Americas and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe, Greenland and Africa, only even multiples are used. In Italy, "half-channel" multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete standards in some countries, including 0.001, 0.01, 0.03, 0.074, and 0.3 MHz.
For more information on FM frequency allocations, see FM broadcast band.

Broadcast bands around the world

Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis
In the early 1960s, several systems to add stereo to FM radio were considered by the FCC, including one submitted by E. H. Armstrong, the inventor of FM, which avoided many of the problems that have haunted the Zenith-GE pilot tone multiplex system. The Armstrong system was rejected by the FCC because it did not allow sub-carrier services, and the Zenith system has gone on to become the standard method in most countries.
It is important that stereo broadcasts should be compatible with mono receivers. For this reason, the left (L) and right (R) channels are matrixed into sum (M) and difference (S) signals, i.e. M = (L+R)/2 and S = (L−R)/2. A mono receiver will use just the M signal. A stereo receiver will matrix the M and S signals to recover L and R: L = M+S and R = M−S.
The M signal is transmitted as baseband audio in the range 30 Hz to 15 kHz. The S signal is amplitude-modulated onto a 38 kHz suppressed carrier to produce a double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC) signal in the range 23 to 53 kHz.
A 19 kHz pilot tone, at exactly half the 38 kHz subcarrier frequency and with a precisely defined phase relationship to it, is also generated. This is transmitted at 8-10% of overall modulation level and used by the receiver to regenerate the 38 kHz subcarrier with the correct phase.
The final multiplex signal from the stereo generator is the sum of the baseband mono audio (M), the pilot tone, and the DSBSC subcarrier. This multiplex, along with any other subcarriers, modulates the FM transmitter.
Converting the multiplex signal back to left and right is performed by a stereo decoder, which is built into stereo receivers.
In order to preserve stereo separation, it is normal practice to apply pre-emphasis to the left and right channels before matrixing, and to apply de-emphasis at the receiver after matrixing.
Stereo FM signals are far more susceptible to noise and multipath distortion than mono FM signals. This is due to several factors, including the following:
For this reason many FM stereo receivers include a stereo/mono switch to allow listening in mono when reception conditions are less than ideal, and most car radios are arranged to reduce the separation as the S/N ratio worsens, eventually going to mono whilst still indicating by the pilot light that a stereo signal is being received.
In addition, the reception of vertically- and horizontally-polarised signals at different phase relationships from the same transmitter site will further corrupt stereo reception and invoke an earlier resolution within the receiver to mono presentation.
A short lived quadraphonic version of the Zenith-GE system used an additional subcarrier at 76 kHz.

the addition of the two sidebands of the difference subcarrier to the baseband signal increases the noise bandwidth of the signal by a factor of three (9.5 dB) as compared with a mono signal.
as mentioned above, the pre-emphasis is applied to the audio signals before encoding. This results in the pre-emphasis acting in the wrong direction on the lower sideband of the difference subcarrier, i.e. decreasing the level as the frequency rises, which will have a further deleterious effect on the S/N of the difference signal. FM stereo
The subcarrier system has been further extended to add other services. Initially these were private analog audio channels which could be used internally or rented out. Radio reading services for the blind are also still common, and there were experiments with quadraphonic sound. If there is no stereo on a station, everything from 23 kHz on up can be used for other services. The guard band around 19 kHz (±4 kHz) must still be maintained, so as not to trigger stereo decoders on receivers. If there is stereo, there will typically be a guard band between the upper limit of the DSBSC stereo signal (53 kHz) and the lower limit of any other subcarrier.
Digital services are now also available. A 57 kHz subcarrier (phase locked to the third harmonic of the stereo pilot tone) is used to carry a low-bandwidth digital Radio Data System signal, providing extra features such as Alternate Frequency (AF) and Network (NN). This narrowband signal runs at only 1187.5 bits per second, thus is only suitable for text. A few proprietary systems are used for private communications. A variant of RDS is the North American RBDS or "Smart radio" system while in Germany a system called ARI is used for broadcasting traffic announcements to motorists (without disturbing other listeners) RDS is designed to be capable of being used alongside ARI despite using identical subcarrier frequencies.
The United States is the only country attempting to put digital radio onto FM rather than using Eureka 147 like most other countries (including Canada), or ISDB like Japan. This in-band on-channel approach results in highly-compressed audio, and blocks any opportunity for new stations to broadcast. The proprietary iBiquity system, branded as "HD Radio", uses subcarriers and extends out somewhat into the sidebands. The hybrid digital (hence "HD") system can later take the bandwidth used by the current analog stereo system, and eventually go all-digital, though this would shut out every existing analog radio.
In the USA services (other than Stereo, Quad and RDS) using subcarriers are sometimes referred to as SCA (subsidiary communications authorisation) services. Uses for such subcarriers include book/newspaper reading services for blind listeners, Private data transmission services (For example sending stock market information to stockbrokers or stolen credit card number blacklists to stores) Subscription commercial-free background music services for shops, Paging ("beeper") services and providing a programme feed for AM transmitters of AM/FM stations. SCA subcarriers are typically 67 kHz and 92 kHz.
Image:RDS vs DirectBand FM-spectrum2.png

Other subcarrier services
A commercially unsuccessful noise reduction system used with FM radio in some countries during the late 1970s, Dolby FM used a modified 25 µs pre-emphasis time constant and a frequency selective companding arrangement to reduce noise. See: Dolby noise reduction system.

Dolby FM
Despite having been developed in the 1940s, FM broadcasting took a long time to be adopted by the majority of radio listeners.
The first FM broadcasting stations were in the United States, but initially they were primarily used to broadcast classical music to an upmarket listenership in urban areas and for educational programming. By the late 1960s FM had been adopted by fans of "alternative rock" music, but it wasn't until 1978 (the first year that listenership to FM stations exceeded that of AM stations) that FM became mainstream. During the 1980s and 1990s, Top 40 music stations and later even country music stations largely abandoned AM for FM. Today AM is mainly the preserve of talk radio, religious programming, ethnic (minority language) broadcasting and some types of minority interest music. Ironically, this shift has transformed AM into the "alternative band" that FM once was.
Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and particularly West Germany were among the first countries to adopt FM on a widespread scale. Among the reasons for this were:
Public service broadcasters in Ireland and Australia were far slower at adopting FM radio than those in either North America or continental Europe. However, in Ireland several unlicenced commercial FM stations were on air by the mid-1980s. These generally simulcast on AM and FM.
In the United Kingdom, the BBC began FM broadcasting in 1955, with three national networks carrying the Light Programme, Third Programme and Home Service (renamed Radio 2, Radio 3 and Radio 4 respectively in 1967). These three networks used the sub-band 88.0 - 94.6 MHz. The sub-band 94.6 to 97.6 MHz was later used for BBC and local commercial services. Only when commercial broadcasting was introduced to the UK in 1973 did the use of FM pick up in Britain. With the gradual clearance of other users (notably Public Services such as police, fire and ambulance) and the extension of the FM band to 108.0 MHz between 1980 and 1995, FM expanded rapidly throughout the British Isles and effectively took over from LW and MW as the delivery platform of choice for fixed and portable domestic and vehicle-based receivers.
In addition, Ofcom (previously the Radio Authority) in the UK issues on demand Restrictive Service Licences on FM and also on AM (MW) for short-term local-coverage broadcasting which is open to anyone who does not carry a prohibition and can put up the appropriate licensing and royalty fees. In 2006 almost 500 such licenses were issued.
FM started in Australia in 1947 but did not catch on and was shut down in 1961 to expand the television band. It was not reopened until 1975. Subsequently, it developed steadily until in the 1980s many AM stations transferred to FM because of its superior sound quality. Today, as elsewhere in the developed world, most Australian broadcasting is on FM - although AM talk stations are still very popular.
Most other countries expanded their use of FM through the 1990s. Because it takes a large number of FM transmitting stations to cover a geographically large country, particularly where there are terrain difficulties, FM is more suited to local broadcasting than national networks. In such countries, particularly where there are economic or infrastructural problems, "rolling out" a national FM broadcast network to reach the majority of the population can be a slow and expensive process.

The medium wave band in Western Europe is heavily overcrowded, leading to severe interference problems and, as a result, most MW frequencies are suitable only for speech broadcasting.
Particularly in Germany after World War II, the best available medium wave frequencies were used by the Allied occupation forces both for broadcasting entertainment to their troops and for broadcasting cold war propaganda across the Iron curtain
The regional structure of German broadcasting meant that the few remaining AM frequencies available for civilian domestic broadcasting fell far short of the number required and the broadcasters looked to FM as an alternative. FM radio Adoption of FM broadcasting worldwide
The frequencies available for FM were decided by some important conferences of ITU. The milestone of those conferences is the Stockholm agreement of 1961 among 38 countries.
http://www.itu.int/publications/publications.aspx?lang=en&media=electronic&parent=R-ACT-RRC.1-1961

Final acts of the conference ITU Conferences about FM

Small-scale use of the FM broadcast band
In some countries, small-scale (Part 15 in United States terms) transmitters are available that can transmit a signal from an audio device (usually an MP3 player or similar) to a standard FM radio receiver; such devices range from small units built to carry audio to a car radio with no audio-in capability (often formerly provided by special adapters for audio cassette decks, which are becoming less and less common on car radio designs) up to full-sized, near-professional-grade broadcasting systems that can be used to transmit audio throughout a property. Most such units transmit in full stereo, though some models designed for beginner hobbyists may not. Similar transmitters are often included in satellite radio receivers and some toys.
Legality of these devices varies by country. The FCC in the US and Industry Canada allow them. Starting on 1 Oct 2006 these devices became legal in most countries in the European Union. Devices made to the harmonised European specification became legal in the UK on 8 Dec 2006.

Consumer use of FM transmitters
The FM broadcast band can also be used by some inexpensive wireless microphones, but professional-grade wireless microphones generally use bands in the UHF region so they can run on dedicated equipment without broadcast interference. Such inexpensive wireless microphones are generally sold as toys for karaoke or similar purposes, allowing the user to use an FM radio as an output rather than a dedicated amplifier and speaker.

FM radio microphones
Low-power transmitters such as those mentioned above are also sometimes used for neighborhood or campus radio stations, though campus radio stations are often run over carrier current. This is generally considered a form of microbroadcasting. As a general rule, enforcement towards low-power FM stations is stricter than AM stations due to issues such as the capture effect, and as a result, FM microbroadcasters generally do not reach as far as their AM competitors.

Microbroadcasting
FM transmitters have been used to construct miniature wireless microphones for espionage and surveillance purposes (covert listening devices or so-called "bugs"); the advantage to using the FM broadcast band for such operations is that the receiving equipment would not be considered particularly suspect. Common practice is to tune the bug's transmitter off the ends of the broadcast band, into what in the United States would be TV channel 6 (<87.9 MHz) or aviation navigation frequencies (>107.9); most FM radios with analog tuners have sufficient overcoverage to pick up these beyond-outermost frequencies, although many digitally-tuned radios do not.
Constructing a "bug" is a common early project for electronics hobbyists, and project kits to do so are available from a wide variety of sources. The devices constructed, however, are often too large and poorly shielded for use in clandestine activity.
In addition, much pirate radio activity is broadcast in the FM range, due to the band's greater clarity and listenership.

Notes
FM broadcasting by country
FM broadcasting (technical)
Lists
History

FM broadcasting in Australia
FM broadcasting in Canada
FM broadcasting in Egypt
FM broadcasting in India
FM broadcasting in Japan
FM broadcasting in Pakistan
FM broadcasting in the UK
FM broadcasting in the USA
FM broadcasting in NZ
FM broadcast band
AM broadcasting
RDS (Radio Data System)
long-distance FM reception (FM DX)
AM stereo (related technology)
Ripping music from FM broadcasts
List of broadcast station classes
Lists of radio stations in North and Central America
Oldest radio station
History of radio

1 件のコメント:

Day of the Jackal さんのコメント...

HD Radio is nothing but a farce:

http://hdradiofarce.blogspot.com/