Part of a series on The Bible (see The Hebrew Bible below)
(see The New Testament below)
The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings or books of Judaism and Christianity.
Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism generally adapt the textual critical approach in toto and regard the Torah as either inspired rather than revealed, or a human product rather than the product of an external God.
In 1943 pope Pius XII's encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu gave the Vatican's imprimatur to textual criticism.
See Biblical exegesis
Hebrew Bible Tanakh Old Testament Writings Prophets Chapters and verses of the Bible Wycliffe Bible Translators Documentary hypothesis Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an Differences between the Bible and the Qur'an Biblical inerrancy Criticism of the Bible Part of Category:Judaism
Part of a series on Christianity
1. Genesis, Ge—Bereshit (בראשית)
2. Exodus, Ex—Shemot (שמות)
3. Leviticus, Le—Vayikra (ויקרא)
4. Numbers, Nu—Bamidbar (במדבר)
5. Deuteronomy, Dt—Devarim (דברים)
6. Joshua, Js—Yehoshua (יהושע)
7. Judges, Jg—Shoftim (שופטים)
8. Samuel, includes First and Second, 1Sa–2Sa—Shemuel (שמואל)
9. Kings, includes First and Second, 1Ki–2Ki—Melakhim (מלכים)
10. Isaiah, Is—Yeshayahu (ישעיהו)
11. Jeremiah, Je—Yirmiyahu (ירמיהו)
12. Ezekiel, Ez—Yekhezkel (יחזקאל)
13. Twelve, includes all Minor Prophets—Tre Asar (תרי עשר)
- a. Hosea, Ho—Hoshea (הושע)
b. Joel, Jl—Yoel (יואל)
c. Amos, Am—Amos (עמוס)
d. Obadiah, Ob—Ovadyah (עבדיה)
e. Jonah, Jh—Yonah (יונה)
f. Micah, Mi—Mikhah (מיכה)
g. Nahum, Na—Nahum (נחום)
h. Habakkuk, Hb—Havakuk (חבקוק)
i. Zephaniah, Zp—Tsefanya (צפניה)
j. Haggai, Hg—Khagay (חגי)
k. Zechariah, Zc—Zekharyah (זכריה)
l. Malachi, Ml—Malakhi (מלאכי)
14. Psalms, Ps—Tehillim (תהלים)
15. Proverbs, Pr—Mishlei (משלי)
16. Job, Jb—Iyyov (איוב)
17. Song of Songs, So—Shir ha-Shirim (שיר השירים)
18. Ruth, Ru—Rut (רות)
19. Lamentations, La—Eikhah (איכה), also called Kinot (קינות)
20. Ecclesiastes, Ec—Kohelet (קהלת)
21. Esther, Es—Ester (אסתר)
22. Daniel, Dn—Daniel (דניאל)
23. Ezra, Ea, includes Nehemiah, Ne—Ezra (עזרא), includes Nehemiah (נחמיה)
24. Chronicles, includes First and Second, 1Ch–2Ch—Divrei ha-Yamim (דברי הימים), also called Divrei (דברי)
- Gospel According to Matthew, Mt
Gospel According to Mark, Mk
Gospel According to Luke, Lk
Gospel According to John, Jn
Acts of the Apostles, Ac (continues Luke)
Epistle to the Romans, Ro
First Epistle to the Corinthians, 1Co
Second Epistle to the Corinthians, 2Co
Epistle to the Galatians, Ga
Epistle to the Ephesians, Ep
Epistle to the Philippians, Pp
Epistle to the Colossians, Cl
First Epistle to the Thessalonians, 1Th
Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, 2Th
- First Epistle to Timothy, 1Ti
Second Epistle to Timothy, 2Ti
Epistle to Titus, Tt
Epistle to Philemon, Pm
Epistle to the Hebrews, He
Epistle of James, Jm
First Epistle of Peter, 1Pe
Second Epistle of Peter, 2Pe
First Epistle of John, 1Jn
Second Epistle of John, 2Jn
Third Epistle of John, 3Jn
Epistle of Jude, Jd
At some point in the past, humanity learned to depart from God's will and began to sin.
Because no one is free from sin, people cannot deal with God directly, so God revealed Himself in ways people could understand.
God called Abraham and his progeny to be the means for saving all of humanity.
To this end, He gave the Law to Moses.
The resulting nation of Israel went through cycles of sin and repentance, yet the prophets show an increasing understanding of the Law as a moral, not just a ceremonial, force.
Jesus brought a perfect understanding of the Mosaic Law, that of love and salvation.
By His death and resurrection, all who believe are saved and reconciled to God.
The use of chapters and verses was not introduced until the Middle Ages and later. The system used in English was developed by Stephanus (Robert Estienne of Paris) (as noted below)
Early manuscripts of the letters of Paul and other New Testament writings show no punctuation whatsoever.  The punctuation was added later by other editors, according to their own understanding of the text. (Punctuation can shape and change the meaning of a passage.)
Orthodox (characterized by Eliezer Berkovitz and Norman Lamm): "Verbal Revelation: The Torah, including both the Written and Oral Traditions, consists of the exact words of God. He gave it all as one piece at Sinai."
Conservative I (characterized by Isaac Lesser, Alexander Kohut, Abraham Joshua Heschel, and David Novak): "Continuous Revelation:God dictated His will at Sinai and other times. It was written down by human beings, however, and hence the diverse traditions in the Bible."
Conservative II (characterized by Ben Zion Bokser, Robert Gordis, Max Routtenberg and Emil Fackenheim): "Continuous Revelation: Human beings wrote the Torah, but they were divinely inspired."
Conservative III (characterized by Louis Jacobs, Seymour Seigel, Jacob Agus, David Lieber and Elliot Dorff): "Continuous Revelation: The Torah is the human record of the concounter between God and the People Israel at Sinai. Since it was written by human beings, it contains some laws and ideas which we find repugnant today."
Conservative IV/Reconstructionist (characterized by Mordecai Kaplan, Ira Eisenstein and Harold Schulweis): "No Revelation: Human beings wrote the Torah. No claim for divinity of the product."
Reform (characterized by the Movement's 1937 Guiding Principles): "Progressive revelation: The Torah is God's will written by human beings. As time goes on, we get to understand his will better and better (="progressive revelation").
Books of the Bible
Lost books of the Old Testament
Lost books of the New Testament
New Testament view on Jesus' life
Table of books of Judeo-Christian Scripture
Calvin's view of Scripture
Jewish Biblical exegesis
Islamic view of the Bible
Similarities between the Bible and the Qur'an
The Bible and history
History of the English Bible
English Translations of the Bible
Dating the Bible
Bible conspiracy theory
Internal consistency and the Bible
Bible scientific foreknowledge
Criticism of the Bible
Animals in the Bible
Alcohol in the Bible
See Bible Society for a list.
Hebrew-English Bible (JPS 1917 translation; includes Hebrew audio)
XML Hebrew-English (KJV) Bible
Old Testament in Hebrew
See "External Links" under Septuagint and New Testament.
Latin Vulgate—Latin Vulgate with parallel Douay-Rheims and King James English translations
SacredBible.org—Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible
Jerome's Latin Vulgate (405 A.D.)
United Bible Societies
AudioBible—Audio version of the King James Version.
Complete MP3 Audio Bible—Downloadable KJV and WEB Audio Bibles
Blue Letter Bible
E-sword—Downloadable Bible in many different versions, for MS Windows.
American Standard Version.
English Standard Version from Good News/Crossway (the publisher).
King James Version with dictionary.
King James Version.
The World English Bible Special html copy/paste version.
New Living Translation
New Revised Standard Version.
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures.
World English Bible.
LDS King James Version with online audio, extensive commentary and easy cross-references. Also available for free in print.
King James Version built using AJAX technologies, with Strongs and Greek Morphological Codes by Robinson.
King James Version PDF
Douay-Rheims Bible—A nicely formatted and searchable Douay-Rheims Bible
Portuguese various translations
(Hungarian, other languages)
The Bible by things
The Hypertext Bible with side-by-side translations in English, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew at the Internet Sacred Text Archive
Bible Gateway at GospelCom.net text search in any one of many translations/languages, or lookup complete passages in up to five different translations/languages at once. Select from among NIV, NASB, MSG, AMP, NLT, KJV, ESV, CEV, NKJV, ASV, NLV, NIrV and many others.
Bible Read-Through—read through the Bible aid that has a standard one year read through as well as the ability to design your own read through.
TheFreeBible.com provides free Bible software downloads
Interlinear (word-by-word) translation of the Christian Bible from the original Hebrew and Koine Greek
Over 40 versions of the Bible
Eastern and Western Armenian Bible
Online Bible (King James Version & Old Testament)
Spanish Bible PDT version
Complete Sayings of Christ (long download)
Crosswalk.com Parallel Bible to see two versions side by side, any of NAS, ASV, ESV, NKJV, KJV, NLT, NRS, GNT, WEB, MSG, NIV, NIrV and many others.
Blue Letter Bible provides resources on a verse by verse basis, such as commentaries, definitions, concordance with Hebrew/Greek, related information and parallel bible on the one selected verse in KJV, NKJV, NLT, NIV, ESV, NASB, RSV, ASV and others.
American Bible Society to search NASB, KJV, CEV, ASV and others.
University of Virginia Library for word proximity searches on the KJV bible.
Many translations in English, verse by verse
The Bible Collection Collection of Sacred Books for Different Religions
Gender-neutral Bible translations.
The Bible in a telephone, smartphone, communicator (MDA) or in PDA.
Biblical sites in the Holy Land Holy Land Biblical sites review. BibleWalks.com
Bible versions and commentary
Bible Study Wiki
A Hebrew and English encyclopedia of everybody in the Jewish Bible.
Topical References, Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedia
Sermons for Today—Biblical exposition
Anderson, Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Testament. ISBN 0-13-948399-3.
Berlin, Adele, Marc Zvi Brettler and Michael Fishbane. The Jewish Study Bible. Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-529751-2.
Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Guide to the Bible. New York, NY: Avenel Books, 1981. ISBN 0-517-34582-X.
Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did they Come from? Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2003. ISBN 0-8028-0975-8.
Ehrman, Bart D. Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why New York, NY: HarperSanFrancisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-073817-0.
Finkelstein, Israel and Silberman, Neil A. The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001. ISBN 0-684-86913-6.
Geisler, Norman (editor). Inerrancy. Sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy. Zondervan Publishing House, 1980, ISBN 0-310-39281-0.
Head, Tom. The Absolute Beginner's Guide to the Bible. Indianapolis, IN: Que Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7897-3419-2.
Hoffman, Joel M. In the Beginning. New York University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8147-3690-4.
Lindsell, Harold. The Battle for the Bible. Zondervan Publishing House, 1978. ISBN 0-310-27681-0.
Lienhard, Joseph T. The Bible, The Church, and Authority. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1995.
Miller, John W. The Origins of the Bible: Rethinking Canon History Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1994. ISBN 0-8091-3522-1.
Riches, John. The Bible: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-285343-0
Taylor, Hawley O. "Mathematics and Prophecy." Modern Science and Christian Faith. Wheaton: Van Kampen, 1948, pp. 175–83.
Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, s.vv. "Book of Ezekiel," p. 580 and "prophecy," p. 1410. Chicago: Moody Bible Press, 1986.
- First Epistle to Timothy, 1Ti
- Gospel According to Matthew, Mt